Flashcards in Exam 1 Review Deck (38):
What major contributions did Larmarck make?
Species change over and they progress to a higher form which is an inheritance of acquired characterisitics which is an example of changes passed down to succeeding generations (Ex: giraffe-->giraffe neck)
Becoming better organisms
What major contributions did Mathus make?
More offspring are born than can survive or reproduce--organisms engage in a "struggle for existence"=formation of a new adaption (Too many species-die out)
What major contributions did Charles Darwin make?
Contributory to evolutionary theory--species adapt through a process of natural selection and sexual selection as well as classical fitness
What major contribution did Hamilton make?
He thought in terms of inclusive fitness which measures an organisms reprouductive success by helping their kin survive and reproduce
What major contribution did Trivers make?
Reciprocal Altriusm--basis of adaptations among nonkin/among social relationships
Parental Investment Theory--basis of sex differences in having offspring
Parent-Offspring Conflict--basis for understanding conflict over distribution of family resources
What are the 3 characteristics of natural selection (survival selection)?
Variation: Characteristics differ within and across species (ex: wing length, defensive ability)
Inheritence: only some variations are passed down--deformities are not passed down--only inherited variations are passed
Selection: Characteristics serve a purpose for survival or reproduction, in which inherited variations are advantageous
What are the 2 types of sexual selection?
Intrasexual competition: same sex competes for attention of the opposite sex
Intersexual competition: one sex drives mating by choosing partners particular characteristics/qualities
What is Classical fitness?
Darwins thought about classical fitness meant that it measures an organisms reproductive success by the number of offspring they produce
What is inclusive fitness?
Hamilton thought in terms of inclusive fitness measures an organism's reproductive success by helping their kin survive and reproduce
What does adapt mean?
Inherited/reliably developing characteristics that occured through the process of natural selection
We develop adaptations based on where we live, adaptations are species-typical, adaptations are created by the process of selectin and if advantageous they will pass onto the next generation
Explain the characteristics of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms (EPMs).
EPMs are problem specific and have solve the problem of survival and reproduction
Interpret small bits of information
Rely on environment input, must be triggered, and input signals and adaptive problem like surviving
Include decision making rules about what to do
Result in in particular output--output is directed toward solutions for specific adaptive problems
List the 4 classes of Adaptive Problems and their theoritcal componants.
1) Survival & Growth: differential reproduction dirves natural selection (ex: climate, weather, food shortages, toxins, diseases, parasites, predators, etc.)
2) Mating: Adaptations to unequal distribution of costs in parenting for men and women (females typically invest more in offspring and will be more selective about mating)
3) Parenting: Children and parents will have conflicts; children want more from their parents can give which leads to optimal allocation of resources
4) Living in Society: Altrusium (concern for others) evolves when genetic relatives help their kin
Reciprocal Altruism: adaptations for providing benefits to non-relatives can evolve as along as the delivery of such benefits is reciporacted at some point in the future
Describe the 3 componants of the human psyche.
Id: Raw part of personality and is the source of all psychic energy
Libido: operates on the pleasure principle (impulese like going restroom) which seeks instant grafticiation, includes primitve instincts and is unconscious.
Ego: Rational and reasonable part of the personality (develops around 2-3 yrs of age toddler years) Operates on the reality principle which leads to delayed gratification that requires psychologically healthy and have ego strength which can go into preconscious, unconscious, and preconscious.
Superego: You need to behave according to the parental/cultural expectations (develops 5-6 yrs of age) which operates on internalized of caregivers' rules and includes the ego ideal but in morality and show in the preconscious "thought"
List the 5 Psychosexual stages.
1) Oral Stage: Birth to 1 yr old
Critical period: incorportaing objects in mouth
Pleasure: ingestion related pleasure (breastfeeding, and pacifers)
Fixation: Oral behaviors
2) Anal Stage: 1-3 years old
Critcal period: Acquiring personal power and control
Pleasure: Elimination of body wastes
Crisis: Potty training
Fixation: Order and control/disorder and rebellion
3) Phallic Stage: 3-6 years old
Critcal period: Development of sex-role identification
Pleasure: self-stimulation/genital play
Crisis: pursuit of a love relationship with the opposite sex parent
Oedipus Complex (boys)
Resolves through identification with father to form masculing identity
Electra Complex (girls)
Results in identification with mother to form feminine identity
Fixation: Sexual deviancy, poor relationship outcomes
4) Latency Stage: 6 years old-purberty
Critical period: developing friendships, genedered personalities
Pleasure: Learning social, athletic, and intellectual skills
5) Genital Stage: Purberty+
Critical Stage: mature sexuality and establishing adult romantic partners
Pleasure: Genitals, sexual experiences, relationships, partners
Crisis: conflict between sexual maturity and societal constraints (Detachment from parents and attachment to partner)
Fixation: Immature sexuality
What are some of the common defense mechanisms and provide examples?
1) Repression: keeping harmful memories buried in the unconscious (ex: fail to remember an event)
2) Regression: returning to an earlier stage in life because it was "easier back then"
3) Projection: Attribute to problem to others: "The other guy has the problem!"
4) Reaction formation: one perceives their feelings to be unacceptable (Father may be jealous at the mother's attention to a newborn infant and will become over protective with the infant)
5) Displacement: Taking fustrations out on someone else
Define ego identity, crisis, and competance.
Ego identity: sense of self through society
Crisis: a challenge
List the 8 psychosocial development stages.
oStage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (ages birth to about 1)
Parallels Freud’s oral stage: Need for pleasure (Freud) vs. continuous care from parent/caregiver (Erikson)—Erikson placed a lot of importance on infancy; trust is necessary for successful future development across the entire lifespan
Source of conflict: Parent/caregiver
Crisis: Balancing trust and mistrust
• Strength: Feelings of trust
• Failure: Mistrust
Bottom line for healthy development: A baby needs to balance trust because a baby cannot just trust everyone.
oStage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Ages 1-3)
Parallels Freud’s anal stage: Freud and Erikson stressed the of importance self-control through potty training
Source of conflict: Parents
Crisis: Balancing self-expression and self-control
• Strength: self-sufficiency
• Failure: Shame and doubt
Bottom line for healthy development: Learning to balance self-expression and self-control is necessary for one’s pride
oStage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (Ages 3-6)
Parallels Freud’s phallic stage: Freud and Erikson stress the importance of children learning society’s [sex] roles
Source of conflicts: Family members
Crisis: Engaging in a social world
• Strength: Initiating actions/developing responsibilities
• Failure: Guilty feelings of irresponsibleness
Bottom line for healthy development: Social skills (skills deemed appropriate by the culture) are formed as children try to master adult like behaviors
oStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiorly (Ages 7-12)
Parallels Freud’s Latency Stage: Children pursue social and intellectual activities
Source of Conflict: Neighborhood, school
Crisis: Mastering knowledge, intellectual, skills cooperation
• Strength: Competence
• Failure: No sense of mastery
Bottom line for healthy development: Parents, teachers, adults, etc. must challenge children to help foster a sense of industry, in which children feel like they accomplish something worthwhile and satisfactory while earning adult recognition
oStage 5: Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (Ages 12-18)
Parallels Freud genital stage: Genital maturity (Freud) and identity (Erikson)
Source of conflict: Peer groups, leadership models
(Identity) crisis: identity-finding out who you are, what you are about, and where you are going in life---Erikson also placed a lot of importance on identity crisis cause they are in the process of exploration “soul searching” Who are you? What are you about? Where are you going in life?
• Strength: Awareness of unique self
• Failure: Inability to identify your role, confusion
Bottom Line for healthy development: Resolution of identity crisis.
oStage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Ages 20-30)
Goes beyond Freud
Source of conflict: Cooperation with partner in friendship, recreation, production, sex
Crisis: Form positive/close relationships with others
• Strength: Developing relationships
• Failure: Fear of or superficial relationships
Bottom line for healthy development: This time for change allows individuals’ new opportunities to develop close relationships. One’s identity must be determined to have a healthy relationship.
oStage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Ages 20-50)
Goes beyond Freud
Source of conflict: Sharing child rearing, dividing labor, household responsibilities
Crisis: The need to be productive in work and with family
• Strength: Sense of life contribution
• Failure: No contribution
Bottom line for healthy development: Confidence in one’s ability (ex: industry, identity, intimacy) allows individuals to be successful in adult tasks set by society.
oStage 8: Integrity vs. Despair (ages 50 and beyond)
Goes beyond Freud
Source of conflict: Finding oneself within humanity, generations
Crisis: Requires lifetime successful conflict resolutions; sense of peaceful satisfaction in ones life
• Strength: Sense of life accomplishments
• Failure: Regret over lost opportunities/ accomplishments
Bottom line for healthy development: An earlier lifetime of successful conflict results in peaceful satisfaction with an individual’s past.
What did Ivan Pavolv discover?
Experiments comprise psychology’s founding landmarks --> salivating dog experiment: distinguished between innate (unconditioned and learned (conditioned) reflexes
What did John B. Watson discover?
Questioned: Can classical conditioning be applied to children’s behavior and to human beings? (Littel Albert experiment)
Argument: It is possible to produce any behavior by controlling one’s environment
Bottom line: Classical conditioning happens in human/shape emotions
What did Edward T. Thorndike discover?
Followed Watson’s footsteps: Puzzle Box Experiment
Argument: Conditioned responses were not involved in the cat’s learning to escape because there was no conditioned stimulus for that behavior
Bottom line: We have a goal-oriented behavior--not based on stimuli
What did B. F. Skinner discover?
Skinner employed Thorndike’s law of effect
Formulated principles of operant conditioning: One learns by operating on the environment learning its consequences
Key discovery: Environmental responses increase or decrease behavior with reinforcement/punishment (learning from consequences of behavior)
What is classical conditioning?
Learning occurs when something new becomes associated with something already known
Focuses on reflexes/physiology, which involves involuntary behavior (S --> R or stimulus --> response)
What is operant conditiong?
The environment shapes our behavior
Learning associations are between a behavior and its consequences, RC or responseconsequence
Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
•Focuses on strengthening (reinforcement) or weakening (punishment) voluntary behaviors
What definitions are part of schdeule of reinforment?
Either contiunous or intermittent--impacts how an organism responds
Behaviors: reinforcement happens after a certain amount of behaviors
Time: reinforcement happens after a certain amount of time
Define Direct reinforcements and vicarious reinforcement.
•Individual observes the model getting a consequence for a behavior
•Individual then assumes he/she will get the same consequence for performing the same behavior
•Individual observes the model and assumed the model received an unobserved benefit for a behavior
•This assumption is based on what the individual observed and the interpretation made of ambiguous events
oComplex form of observational learning in which we have that belief we can learn how to control our lives while producing positive outcomes
Effort and investment
Perseverance and motivation
Choices and aspirations
What are Schemes?
Mental structures of how we understand the world
We organize information, concepts, and knowledge, and represent behaviors and actions
Earliest schemes include our innate reflexes and actions (ex: sucking, grasping, hitting)
Then, schemes become more advanced from infancy to adulthood (ex: getting a job)
Bottom line: The advancement of schemes signals advanced cognitive development
How does assimilation, accomadtion, equilibration, and disequilibration interplay with schemes?
Adding to and using existing scheme
Occurs when you act upon a stimulus or something already understood—a thought that already exists
Altering/modifying existing scheme when they no longer work
We change what we understand based on responses to new stimuli
Balances assimilation and accommodation (balances the knowledge we already acquired (assimilate) and new information (accommodation)
We need to be balanced as part of our mental development
What are the Piaget's four stages?
1) Sensorimotor Stage: Birth-2 years of age
•Development of action knowledge and action patterns (ex: focus on physical exploration of the world)
2)Preoperational Stage: 2-7 years of age
•Development of a child’s “thoughts” (symbolic thinking, mental reasoning, and concepts) (ex: focus on mental exploration of the world)
Centration: Children concentrate on one thing and ignore the rest
Conservation: The quality of something may remain constant in different situations; children have not yet mastered conservation
Transformation: A child views things in isolation
Egocentric thought: Children think their thoughts are the only thoughts
Intuitive Thought: Children always ask “WHY?!”
Bottom line: In this stage, children’s intuitive thought prepares them for sophisticated reasoning
3) Concrete Operational Stage: 7-12 years of age
•Development of abilities allow children to classify/quantify objects (active use of logic) (ex: focus on reasoning about the real world)
Conservation: Children have mastered conservation through the use of logic (children remain concrete in their thinking)
Decentering: Children are less egocentric and take other views/situations into account
Bottom line: In this stage, children have a hard time reasoning or answering why
4) Formal Operational Stage: 12-15 years of age
•Cognitive ability to operate on ideas (ex: focus on hypothetical, deductive, and abstract reasoning)
Adolescents consider problems abstractly rather than concretely
Adolescents use formal reasoning
This type of thinking doesn’t officially develop until adolescents are about 15—but, this type of thinking may not even fully develop in adults!
Bottom line: At the end of this stage, adolescents can actively seek to understand their world through justification
What does Vygotsky mean by tools?
oWhat we learn is a set of cognitive tools
•Tools are ways of thinking about and solving problems
•Tools are “shared” or distributed in cultural contexts
•Individuals adapt to their culture by learning tools/habits of mind
What does zone of proximal mean and scaffolding?
oZone of Proximal Development (ZPD):
Children can learn difficult tasks through the assistance of other/experience people
Children learn best when they work with a more knowledgeable other (ex: parents, teachers, mentors)
•More advanced learners provide scaffolding to help novices complete tasks they would not be able to do their own
•Scaffolding: initially give strong support, but lessen as learner becomes more capable
•ZPD is constantly moving as learners master new tools/skills
What are Vygotsky's major elements of language and development?
Language as a cognitive tool:
•Self-talk (private speech): Children talk to themselves out loud
•Inner speech: Children talk to themselves mentally (Development of self-regulation)
Socail activity leads to cognitive development:
•Internalization: We learn about cultural tools
•Appropriation: Using/adapting tools in our own way for specific needs
What Bronfenbrenner's PPCT model stand for?
Process: Interactions between the child/individual and the environment
•Family, caregivers, friends, & teachers
Person: An individuals’ personal/biological characteristics (ex: a person changes the environment by being in it)
•School, home, work
Context: Development is influenced by levels of the environment—microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.
•Local gov., community, parent’s workplace
Time: AND, development is influenced by passage of time-chronosystem
•Events (historical changes/transitions
Relation between the developing person and the immediate environment that contains the person is what environmental system?
Microsystem--(ex: Sophia lives includes her home environment and her interactions with her parents, brothers, and sisters. School is also part of her microsystem, which includes her school interactions with her teachers and other students.)
Interrelations among 2 or more settings that contain the developing person is called what environmental system?
Mesosystem--Ex: Sophia’s parents have a close relationship with her teacher. Her parents always attend conferences and volunteer in the classroom. Sophia’s learning is impacted by the coordination between home and school
Embrace social structures. These structures do not contain the "developing person" but they do impact the settings of where the person is..is called what enivronmental system?
Exosystem--(Ex; Sophia’s mom’s job requires that she travel often and her dad’s job requires that he work long hours. This affects the amount of time her parents have to support her through transitions in her life.)
Incluedes, micro-, meso, and exosystems. Does not include specific contexts that affect one's life, but rather to societal "blueprints" for one's culture/subculture is called what environmental system?
Macrosystem--(Ex; Sophia lives in the United States which encompasses an individualistic culture. Therefore, she values being independent and self-reliant.)