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Flashcards in Exam #2 Reivew Deck (90):

What is the Embryo protection hypothesis?

Morning Sickness: Prevents mothers from consuming teratogens

Associated with environmental dangers (E.g. smoke and smog)

Associated with food aversions (E.g. alcohol, caffeinated drinks (coffee, tea), protein (eggs, red meat), bitter green vegetables

Bottom line: Morning sickness protects the embryo


What is it called when a babies development proceeds from head to feet?



What is called when a babies development proceeds from center to extremities?



What are the infant reflexes? (Name all ten)

Sucking, swallowing, rooting, stepping, swimming, Moro, Babinshki, Startle, Galant, and Palmar graps.


Infant begins sucking when anything touches roof of mouth. Never disappears. What reflex?



Infant begin to ingest food immediately. Never disappears, What reflex?



Infant turns head toward anything that strokes cheek, opens mouth, turns head to search for object to put in mouth. Disappears at 3 weeks of age, is what reflex?



Infant attempts to walk soles of fee touch a flat surface. Disappears at 2 months of age is what reflex?



infant place face down in a pool of water will paddle and kick. Disappears by 4-6 months of age, is what reflex?



Reaction in which legs and head extend while arms jerk outwards. Arems are then brought back into body, hands clench, and crying begins. Disappears at 6 months of age, is what reflex?



Infant toes will fan out when bottom of foot is stroked. Disappears by 8-12 months of age, is what reflex?



Infant responds to a surprising event. Does not disappear, is called what reflex?



Infant turns toward a touch or stroke along the side of the back. Disappears by 4-6 months of age, is called what reflex?



Infant grasps anything that touches or strokes across palm. Disappears by 5-6 months of age, is called what reflex?

Palmar Grasp


What is the importants of breastfeeding?

Breast feeding is more natural and healthy
(I.e. that babies are more adapted to this form of nutrition)

Breastfeeding is more economical and convenient than bottles and formula

Research suggests:
i.Lower chance of childhood obesity

ii.Improved bone mass

iii.Lower rate of intestinal problems

ivImproved immune system functioning

v.Lower rate of allergies

vi.Lower rates of SIDS

vii.Faster postpartum recovery return to pre-pregnancy weight for moms

viii.Lower rate of breast cancer for moms


What attachment is this called when a Child’s behavior: Explored the unfamiliar room

Behavior’s upon mothers: Subdued when mother left/ Greeted mom positively when she returned

Mom’s behavior: Mom is sensitive ?

Securely Attached


What attachment is called when a Child’s behavior: Did not orientate to their mother while investigating room

Behaviors upon mothers: Little interest in mom when she returned

Mom’s behavior: Mom sometimes ignored child ?

Avoidant Insecure


What is this attachment called when a Child’s behavior: intense distress especially when absent

Behaviors upon mothers: reject mom when she returns

Mom’s behavior: mom behaves ambivalently towards child?

Resistant Insecure


What happened in the strange situation experiment?

a. An experiment done by Ainsworth and associates attachment in 1-year olds. This research focused mostly on reunion and separation—there were 8 identified patterns but we are going to focus on the 3 groups


What was Bowlby's internal working model?

a. Foundation for understanding how attachment operate in adult relationships

b.Bowlby (1979) claimed that mental representations of the self and others, formed in the context of the child-care giver relationship, carry forward and influence: thought, feeling, and behavior in adult relationships.

c.Bowlby claims that we need love & support; secure, avoidance (unloved), and distance (resistance)


What mother-infant interaction is this called when mothers play peekaboo with child results love and affection?

Face to face


What mother-infant interaction is this called when a mother is constantly carrying child everywhere infants fed less frequently on mothers terms not babies?

Close bodily contact


What mother-infanct interaction is this called when a mother eye contact when a mother is feeding (face to face interaction) huge for close bodily contact, skin to skin contact huge time frames for bond between mother and baby versus bottle feeding lacks face to face interaction?

Feeding; nursery


What mother-infant interactions is this called when a mother is picking up baby and love them (respond to baby, meet their demands)?

Response to crying


What is earned secruity?

a.Two components:

i.Do I trust other people to be caring and kind?

ii.Do I believe I am somebody that deserves to be care for?

b.Earned security

i.No secure attachment with the primary caregiver

ii.Another person later in life cares for you, so that you earn the feeling of security and improve your internal working model


What are the elements of baby talk?

a.Enthusiasm when they talk to 5 months old use shorter words and high pitch voice versus talking compared to talking to an adult about the weather is more descriptive

b.Allow babies to learn grammar if we talk to them that (using high pitch voice, rhythmic, repetitious, answer format)

c.Recasting sense: talk to babies in high pitched tones learning correct grams as they grow older

d.Allow for language and grammar development (help them in school and later on in life)


What is a Nativist?

i.Babies are born with specific brain modules and EPMs designed to learn language

ii.Resulting mechanisms include an innate grammar and a drive to pay attention to and learn language

iii.Chomsky believed babies have this language acquisition device they have the ability to learn language of survival through communication


What is a behaviorist?

i.Babbling-->Accidental words-->reinforcement --> language

ii.“ball” accidental word through reinforcement they start to learn the language


What is a Interactionist?

Perspectives (Bandura, Piaget, Vygotsky)

i.Children learn languages within social contexts

ii.Cognitive abilities shape language development AND language shapes cognitive abilities—talking to each other through language


What are the miletones of language development?

Crying, cooing, receptive language, holopharase, naming explosion, and telegraphic speech


What type of language development is this when a baby is crying reflex when their sleepy, hungry, also a discomfort cry (screaming cry) constipated their crying, gas reflex happens from Birth to 1 month?

Crying 4+ types


What type of language development is this when a child is squealing and gurgling: vowel constants (mimic caregiver) = 1-2 months?



What type of language development is this when when a child says words have meaning: old words having meaning for example keys=car ride goes to 8 to 12 months?

Receptive language:


What type of language development is this when a child says single word + gestures to indicate pharse; “Ball” instead of “I want that ball”—multiple words combined into one word 12-18 phrases goes up to 12-18 months?



What type of language development is this when a child can speak 50 to 200 words in 6 months—talk new words in short period of time learning them goes on til 18-24 months?

Naming explosion


What language development is this when a child can now say two-word phrases, which characteristics most early speech, “No bed” instead of “I will not go to bed”; “under extension” (children don’t quite understand that they have meaning outside their words) and “overextension”; they start to overgeneralize a meaning of a word (Ex: car refers to any moving vehicle with four tires, trucks, buses, tractors) going up to 18-24 months?

Telegraphic Spech


What happens to language development at ages 2-4?

i.Linguistics ability increases rapidly

ii.Appropriate use of language in social settings

iii.Increase in private speech (self-talk) and social speech

iv.I’m sitting=correct, I’m sit=incorrect


What happens to language development at ages 6-11?

Growth in vocabulary

1.6 years about 8,000-14,000 words

2.10 years about 13,000-19,000 words

3.Adults know about 25,000-30,000 words

4.Development of metalinguistic awareness (understandings of one’s own use of language)

5.Asks for clarification


What play is this called when one Plays alone, is engaged in activity, but does not attempt to engage others?

Solitary Play


What is this called when one Watch others play but does not engage with (interested but no participation)?

Onlooker Play


What is this called when one Play side-by-side with same set of toys/activities, children notice each other, but do not influence other’s behavior?

Parallel Play


What is this called when one plays with set of toys/behaviors, exchange toys and small comments, but little to no group organization—just lending and borrowing toys?

Associative Play


What is called when one plays with Children play in highly organized and have common goal(s)—be a leader in the group participate in one activity sacrifice with the group?

True Cooperative Play


What is the rule governed play?

Coordinated play that adheres to a set of abstract rules (i.e. cooperative and competitive activities)

i.Stage 1: Age


What is first pretend play?

(0-2 years):
Using a toy/object for its intended/typical purpose (Ex: use a pretend cellphone to call mother to pretend)


What is subsitute play?

(2-3 yrs)
Using a toy/object for a novel purpose: use a block to resemble as a phone


What is sociodramatic play?

~3+ yrs
Role-playing games—fantasy play, do it themselves (e.g. play superheroes, firefighters, school, house)


What makes play, play?

a.Intrinsic Motivation
i.Playing out of own choice for its own sake

b.“Mean-Over ends”
i.More about having fun with the process than about getting to the end result

c.Different than exploration
i.“What is this?” versus “What can I do with this?”—what they can with the toy

i.Pretending—think outside of reality; nothing is taken seriously

e.Active Engagement
i.Absorbed in the activity—hard to distract them from the activity


What are the evolutionary psychology perscpetives of play?

i. Play serves a purpose in regards to our survival and reproduction—offers experiences necessary for neurological development


What are the behaviorist perscpetives of play?

i. Play is a response-oriented activity (i.e. we are just responding to stimuli)


What are the Psychoanalytic/psychosocial perscpetives of play?

i.Play relieves psychological tension

ii.Freud: Pretend play develops the Ego by balancing Id (socially unacceptable urges) with Superego (socially acceptable activites)

iii.Erikson: Play helps us overcome anxieties from crises


What are the cognitive perspectives of play?

i.Play experiences influence how we think about/understand the world

ii.Piaget: play experiences allow us to assimilated/add knowledge into our schemes

iii.Vygotsky: Pretend play allows children to practice the language tools of their cultural


What is Kohlberg's perspective on gender development?

Children are so rigid about gender norms because they believe norms because they believe sex differences are not biological (If a boy puts on a dress, he is a girl)


When children become aware that people are permanently male or female (child realizes that if a guy carries a purse he still a boy, just holding a purse) is called what?

Gender Constancy


Stage 1 is called what in gender constancy?

Stage 1: Gender Identity (9 months-3 years of age)—children label themselves and others as “girls and boys”


Stage 2 is called what in gender constancy?

Stage 2: Gender Stability (3 years-4 years of age)—Children begin to understand sex/gender are fixed


Stage is called what in gender constancy?

Stage 3: Gender Consistency (5 years-7 years of age)—Children understand that gender is invariant, despite one’s changes in appearance


Explain the impact media has on children’s gender development.

Bandura was concerned that the media negatively influences children

b.Studies have found that media can affect behavior—Found that real-life violent video games play was related to aggressive behavior and violent video game play led people to hostile thoughts imitate other people, compare yourself to other people (negative impact to child)

c.Children are vulnerable to the effects of the media (pay more attentional to commercials than adults)


What is Freud's psychodyanmic perspectives of gender development?

Phallic Stage (Gender begins here, ages 3-6 years)

i.Oedipal complex, Electra complex

ii.Identification with same sex parent and incorporations of their values, attitudes and gender roles


What is Erikson's psychodynamic perspecitves of gender development?

Erikson’s Initiative vs. Guilt Stage (ages 3-6 years)

i.Children are learning social boundaries and roles, “What I’m allowed to do?”

ii.This includes gender roles and social norms related to gender

iii.Identification with appropriate gender role is important to healthy psychosocial development—what I’m allowed to do in society, how should I act


What is gender schemas?

Are organized structures that include typical roles, behaviors, attitudes, emotions, and relationships (Ex: mother is love and care, father is mean and masculine)


What do indivduals use schemas for?

pay attention to differences between genders/needed to make sense of complex, ambiguous, overwhelming social environment

Individuals use schemas to understand themselves (form identity)—being to build more detailed schemas to reflect same sex characteristics and norms


What does Sandra Bem believe about gender schemas?

Individuals can choose to adopt characteristics associated with both masculinity and femininity meaning, your gender can by androgynous (gender roles include characteristics of both male and female)


What is Gender Schematic?

See the world in terms of traditional male and female categories/align with and are primarily influenced by one set of schemas


What is Gender Aschematic?

See the world in “shades of grey” in terms of gender/are influenced to a greater of lesser extend by both categories


What is self concept?

which includes the beliefs one holds about themselves

Beliefs include physical attributes (I’m a good runner); Optimistic outlooks of themselves may be accurate; preschoolers self-concept is reflected by the culture in which they live


What is self-esteem?

i. Emotional belief about the self/children develop their own standards of success and compare themselves to others


What is self efficacy?

(Bandura): Belief that the self can master a situation and produce positive outcomes (similar to feelings of competence by Erikson)


What is Theory of mind?

Beliefs about how the mind works and influences our behavior and ideas that explain other people’s beliefs and behavior


At the toddlers stage, what is their thoery of mind?

Toddlers: By age 1.5-2 being to understand that other people have plans and emotions


At the Preschoolers stage, what is their thoery of mind?

By age 3-4, children understand that they can imagine and pretend (and know that others can too); but, their understanding of belief is incomplete


At the Kindergarten stage, what is their theory of mind?

By age 4-5, children understand that people can be fooled and have the ability to understand others may have false belief; but their ability to understand what people think about other people is limited


At the Elementary stage, what is their thoery of mind?

By age 5-7, children are aware that people form false beliefs about other’s beliefs and thinking stats to become a reciprocal process; develop friendships


What is Kholber's perspective on moral development?

a.Peoples response to these levels responds to their age—younger children, yes you should or you shouldn’t steal the drug—don’t like getting into trouble

b.Questions society’s rules, lead to making their own decision in the situation

c.Male bias


What is Gilligan's perspective on gender development?

a.She realizes that women develop morally different than men BUT she doesn’t claim that one gender is better than another. Were all the same.

b.Women don’t have less morals, females are not less immature than boys, brought in a feminist perspective


What is the first stage of Selmans & Selman's development of friendhsips?

a.Stage 0 (age 3-7): Momentary Playmateship

i.Friends are valued by material and physical attributes; no theory of mind

ii.“He has a giant Superman doll and a real swing set.”


What is the second stage of Selmans & Selman's development of friendhsips?

b.Stage 1 (age 4-9): One-
Way Assistance

i.Friends are valued by one party doing what the other party wants; developing theory of mind

ii.“She is not my friend anymore…She wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.”


What is the third stage of Selmans & Selman's development of friendhsips?

c.Stage 2 (age 6 to 12): Two-Way Fair-Weather Cooperation

i.Concern for what friends think about each other; developing theory of mind

ii.“We are friends…She likes me and I like her. We do things for each other.”


What is the fourth stage of Selmans & Selman's development of friendhsips?

d. Stage 3 (age 9 to 15): Intimate, Mutually Shared Relationships

i.Relationships are viewed as ongoing and systematic; developed theory of mind

ii.“He is my best friend. We can tell each other things we can’t tell anyone else; we understand each other’s feelings. We can help each other when we are needed


What is the fifth stage of Selmans & Selman's development of friendhsips?

e. Stage 4 (age 12+) Autonomous Interdependent Friendships

i.Relationships are complex; good friends give strong emotional and psychological support

ii.“One thing about a good friendship is that it’s a real commitment, a risk you have to take. You have to be able to support and trust and give, but you have to be able to let go, too.”


What is Peer status?

Refers to the sociometric measures of popularity


They are Nominated as popular and well-liked
And they have Attributes: High levels of sociability and cognitive ability, listeners, regulates emotions, good moods, positive self-view--this group is called what?

Popular kids


These kids are Infrequently nominated as popular, disliked, avoided
have Attributes: Aggressive, little sociability and cognitively skilled, lonely, delinquent
Infrequently nominated as popular, disliked, avoided
and they also have these Attributes: Aggressive, little sociability and cognitively skilled, lonely, delinquent--this group of kids is called what?

Rejected Kids


These kids are Infrequently nominated as popular, disliked, avoided
and have Attributes: Aggressive, little sociability and cognitively skilled, lonely, delinquent--this group of kids is called what?

Neglected Kids


These kids Frequently nominated as popular, but disliked have these types of Attributes: Social abilities and cognitive skills, highest levels of aggression and may be bullies (but not while adults are around)--this group of kids is called what?

Controversial Kids


What is a bully?

Agressive behavior that involves power


What are the two forms of bullying?

Physical aggression: physically attacked (more masculine norms0

Relational aggression: putting people down in words (more feminine norms)


What are the characteistics of bullies?

1.May come from abusive homes and have poor attachments with parents

2.Negative peer experiences

3.Experience academic problems

4.Watch TV containing violence

5.Troublemakers/liars, rejected, aggressive

6.Victims of bullies themselves


What is victimization?

Verbal and physical attacks or abuse directed at peers


What are the characteristics of victims?

1. Experience academic problems

2.Loners, cry easily

3. Lack of social skills, rejected, withdrawn

4.Overbearing parent

5.Passive, high anxiety

6.Issues with self-esteem and depression