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Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (49):

Define Adolescent Egocentrism.

Imaginary Audience--attention getting behavior for example "on stage--the main actors" (ex: group could be talking about her but they could not be)

Personal fable: cognitive distortions; sense of disability, have these feelings that no one else is feeling which can result in:

Sense of uniqueness "They have no idea what i am feeling"

Sense invincibility "I won't get pregnant" or have street friends who street street & tell them to be careful so they won't get hurt


Identify when boys/girls reach puberty.

Puberty is time by sexual maturation.
Spermarch for boys, menarche for girls (menstrual period)

Bodily changes: Growth spurt

Males hit puberty Age 11
Testosterone: Voice change, height, development of genitals, muscle mass increase, underarm hair

Females hit puberty around Age 9
Estradiol (estrogen): enlarged breasts, uterine development, pubic hair, height, hips, skeletal development, underarm hair


Give explanations for secular trend in puberty.

Generational change of physical characteristics

Age of Menarche has declined over the years in industrialized nations

Boys have also reached puberty earlier

Puberty is related to body weight; those who are overweight typically start to age at younger age


Research on secular trend in puberty.

Poor growth is associated with poverty and deprivation.

Secular trend in height is associated with affluence

Overnutrition triggers puberty

Hormones (estrogen) increase body weight cause by diary products

Physical activity has declined, sedentary activities have increased (lazy activity)


Define primary/secondary sexual characteristics and when we reach sexual maturaton.

Primary sexual characteristics: body growth/changes in physical features involving the reproductive organs

Secondary sexual characteristics: visible body growth that serves as additional signs of sexual maturity

Puberty is time by sexual maturation. Boys 11 and girls 9


Define Marcia's identity statuses.

Identity diffusion: adolescent doesn't have a sense of having choices (he/she has not made, is not willing to make, or is not attempting to make a commitment.

Identity Foreclosure: seems willing to commit to some roles, values, or goals for the future/ have not yet expereinced an identity crisis/tend to conform to expectations of others/have not explored options

Identity Moratorium: identity is currently is crisis/ exploring various commitments/ ready to make choice but has not committed to choices yet

Identity Achievement: adolescent has gone through an identity crisis/ has made a commitment to a sense of identity (role, value, goal, etc.) that he or she has chosen


Describe why we may present our identity differently to parents than we would our friend.

Students did show different identities. Because they cannot settle for an even identity, once they are with family they would hold more maturity and calm while with friends they seem to be more fun and anxious and would like to the person that everyone likes.


Define Erikson vs. Marcias concepts of identity development.

Marcia believed:
Elaborated on/refined Erikson’s model

Suggests stage does not consist of identity resolution or identity diffusion

Better thought of as an extent of exploration and commitment to an identity within certain domains.

Focus on commitment.

Erikson believed:

Conflict in adolescence is within identity achievement and identity confusion.

Peer relationships considered important.

Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Definition vs. lack
Commitments vs. restricted exploration
Crisis resolution vs. no resolution


Identify markers of adulthood (markets of adulthood--traditional and research markers).

Traditional Markers
Legal Age
Full-time job

Research markers
Financial independence (support yourself)
Indpenence decision (making decisions for yourself) making
Personal responsibility (take responsibility of your own actions)


Identify characteristics of emerging adults.

Identity Exploration (figuring out self especially in love and work situations)

Instability (many life changes happening)

Self-focused (not responsible for anyone else)

Feel in-between (not an adult but no longer an adolescent)

Possibilities (time of optimism)


Summarize development in early adulthood according to Freud and Erikson.

Erikson: Early Adults (ages 20-30) are in Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
---For healthy development, individuals’ must develop close relationships and one’s identity must be determined to have a healthy relationship.

BUT, still 20 years old are still in stage 5: (identity vs identity confusion)

Freud’s Genital Stage: Mature sexuality and establish adult romantic partners. Need to detach from parents and attach to partner.

Erikson’s Intimacy vs. Isolation Stage: Develop close relationships.

Healthy outcome = long-term relationships!!!


Identify cognitive perspectives of how one thinks in as an early/emerging adult.

Piaget formal operational thinking

Modern perspectives suggest that adults also develop:

Pragmatic Thinking: thinking in ways that accept imperfection and use compromise

Reflective Thinking: thinking that is evluative; compare all the illusions with each other

Relativistc Thinking: thinking in shades of grey; lot of middle ground depending on the situation is the relavistic thinking; absolute approaches


Describe the Clark and Hatfield study.

Demonstrated evidence to offers of casual sex. Confederate of both sexes asked:
Would you go out with me tonight?
Would you come over to my apartment tonight?
Would you go to bed with me tonight? (men and women would respond differently)

Women wanted to spend time together first where most men wanted to go straight to bed first.


Describe La Cerra (1994) study (long-term mating).

Had 240 women rate the attractiveness of a man pictured: standing alone, postively interacting with a child, ignoring a crying child, with a child facing forward, vacuuming a rug

Women have evolved preferences for partners who demonstrate kindness and postive interactions with children, and less attracted to men who ignore a crying child.


Identify women vs. men reproductive abilities and explain their purposes of mating on an evolutionary perspective.

Sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity, which increases potential health of offspring. --> links to what we find attractive to indicators of health and fertility

Good Genes thoery argues that women have evolved preferences for attractive men because attractiveness signals genetic fitness. = reproducitve success


Define dating across the lifespan.

Dating in adolescence: adolescents date to explore relationships, develop intimacy, and explore sexual behavior

Dating in early/emergin adulthood: should i get married or not?/Now, many people are choosing to cohabitat or stay single/for early adults, marriage remains the preferred method.

Dating and Marriage in middle adulthood: today there is more variation across relationship types/ single, chohabiting, married , or remarried with blended families/with marrige, this is where the peak of marital satisfaction starts to begin

Dating/marriage in late adulthood: again, there is variation across relationship types, at this point in life people report they are satisfied with their marriages


Define Baumrind’s 4 parenting styles/effects on children (what effects they have on child and parent).

Parenting Styles:

Firm & strict
Setting clear and consistent limits
Loving & emotionally supportive
Reason with children
Communicate rational for punishment
Encourage independence

Don’t hold themselves responsible for how their children turn out
Place little/no limits on their children’s behavior

Do not tolerate disagreement

Show little/no interest in their children
Rejecting behavior
Emotionally detached


Parenting style effects on children (what effects they have on child and parent).

Likeable & friendly with peers
Self-assertive & cooperative
Strong motivation to achieve
Successfu--don't want to get yelled at

Low social skills
Low self-control

Little sociability
Not very friendly
Behave uneasily (around peers)

Disrupts emotional development
Feel unloved (BEAR WORST)
Emotionally detached
Impedes physical/cognitive development
"parent thinking I fed them and provided a roof over their head, makes them a good parent"


What is reciprocal altruism?

Trivers (1971) offered an exception to altruism through reciprocity
1) costs must be small compared to benefits
2) the alturist and the recipient must exchange roles (you scratch my back i'll scratch yours system)

Recipent gets the benefits.


What is social contract theory?

Evolution of cooperative exchange in humans

Pays special attention to how humans have solved the problem of cheating--loof for who cooperates to ensure for survival.


Identify and define Kubler-Ross’s 5 stages towards death

Developed in a process of death people go on in these 5 steps before death:
Denial—individual goes through the process of death (7 weeks to live)

Anger—realized the process of dying

Bargaining—just keep me alive long enough to see my child get married

Depression—realize death is inevitable; can’t deny their going to pass soon; lost their relationship with everyone

Acceptance—made peace that their going to pass away; going to be okay with what is going to happen


Explain how early biology study/research influenced evolutionary theory (remember they started that study with fossils—gradual change).

During the late 1700s-early/mid 1800s biology becomes recognized as a science and there became interest in exploring different species, which was done througgh interspecies comparison, fossil records embryological development

Life is not fixed.


Explain Darwin’s theories of natural and sexual selection

Natural selection=survival selection

Variation: characteristics differ witin and across species (wing length, defensive ability)

Inheritance: only some variations are passed down (deformities (wing deformities) are not passed down; only inherited variations are passed down

Selection: characteristics serve a purpose for survival or reproduction, in which inherited variations are advantageous (finches beaks)


Explain how evolutionary theory influenced Freud (Freud changed his theory death and life extinct—libido)

Freud theory corresponded closely Darwin's concept of natural and sexual selection.

Initially, Freud's initial theory proposed an instinctual system:
1) Life-preservative instincts: Ones need for air, water, shelter etc.
2) Sexual instincts: Breastfeeding, defecating, mature sexuality

Freud took these beliefs as inspiration to this theory about the develop of the individual personality.

Everyone’s personality contains an Id, Ego, and Superego


How is Freud's perspective differed from Darwin?

Unconscious mind is primitive and has evolved like our physical traits have evolved.
(Infants are born with instinctual/psychic energy (the libido) which energizes and directs all human activity
1) Eros: Positive life energy, includes hope and sexual desire
2) Thanatos: Negative death energy; includes aggression


Compare Freud vs. Erikson (differences between these two).

Freud taught Erikson: Erikson embraced Freud's concepts of structural systems, maturational stages, and unconscious motivatoin--erogenous zones

Erikson's work emphasized development as a series of crises, which occurs between an invdividual society


Compare psychodynamic theories (i.e. Freud & Erikson) to behavioral theories (both of them—what do they say as what they are missing)

Shift from stage theory to quantitative change/observable behavior

People do not pass through a series of stages

People are affected by environment influences

Learning occurs by noticing changes in behavior


Explain Bandura’s theory of observational learning and characteristics of models (we observe people because we look up to them.).

We learn to behave appropriately based on modeling
1) The transmission values, attitudes, thoughts, and behavior
2) We learn from exemplars

Modeling can imitation but it is not just imitation
1) Modeled activites convey rules/structures displayed in the exemplars (e.g. includes "how to" behaviors)


What are the observable characteristic models?

Parents & siblings
Same-sex genders
People we have things in common with
People with respect
People in power

You are more likely to model when…
you can pay an appropriate amount of attention.

you remember what you see.

you have the ability to reproduce the behavior.

you are influenced by a models characteristics.
the quality of the relationship matters.

the value of the behavior matters.

you are likely to model if you receive a desirable reward.


Define Piaget’s concepts of schemes (how we organize information about our world) .

Schemas: Mental structures of how we understand the world (we organize information, concepts, and knowledge and represent behaviors and actions)

Earliest schemas include our innate reflexes and actions (sucking, grasping, hitting)

Then, schemes become more advanced from infancy to adulthood (getting a job)

All signal advanced cognitive development.


Explain Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD learn on our own or need help).

Children can learn difficult tasks through the assistance of other/experience people; learn best when they work with a more knowledgeable other (parents, teachers, mentors)


Explain Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of human development.

5 contextual systems:

Microsystem: relation between the developing person and the immediate environment that contains that person. (influences: family, caregivers, friends, teachers)

Mesosystem: interrelatons among 2 or more settings that contain the developing person (interaction between microsystems like home and school, school and work, etc.)

Exosystem: Embraces social structures. Theses structures do not contain "developing person" but they do impact the settings of where the person is (societal instituions--local government, the community, parent's workplace, places of worship, local media)

Macrosystem: includes the first 3 systems does not "specific contexts" that affect one's life, but rather to societal "blueprints" for one's culture/subculture (society in general--types of governments, religious/political value systems)

Chronosystem: Underlies all previous systems. Encompases change (or consistency) over time in the characteristics and environment within which an individual lives (events such as historical changes/transitions)


Define teratogens (bad things that effect fetus).

Teratogens are factors that potentially affect fetal development and produce birth defects (disease, drugs, environmental toxins)


What are sensitive periods and critical periods when consuming teratogens?

Sensitive Periods: Irregularities in development in non-normative but non-life threatening issues in development.
1) Exposure to teratogens
Vision/language development

Critical Periods: Irregularities in development results in major defects or death.
1) Example:
Exposure to teratogens
Thalidomide exposure


Explain Ainsworth’s contribution to attachment theory.

Her method of assessing attachment was the strange situation. (Secure, Insecure-Avoidant, Insecure-Resistant)

Secure attached child: more exploration in environment, trust mother to be there, they can play and mom will be there; she observes that securely attach mom will walk with child and play with them versus just sitting around

Avoidant-insecure child: Mother leaves the room & child cries, but when she’s come back the child praise her

Resistant-insecure child: Mother
comes back but baby is super distress; baby and mother struggle with care and support until they can get comfortable once again


Explain the Lafuente et al. (1997) study (Mozart effect)—big belly/beats by Dr dre if you let the baby listen to mozart becomes smarter.

Lafuente et al. (1997) demonstrated babies exposed to 70+ hours of classical music in utero were more advanced developmentally (motor and cognitive skills) at 6 months old


What is the conclusion of the Genie case study of language development (she never knew language—missed time frame)

For example in the video, there was a part where her tutor was helping Genie to tie her shoes that she began to repeat certain words after her. This would be a good example of a behaviorist perspective, where Genie was able to babble out accidental words and when she did her tutor used positive reinforcement when she spoke the words. Another interesting example that took place was the Nativist Perspective where Genie was able to learn words with the help of her tutor and began to develop questions on her own, the grammar may not be right, but the capability she had to produce a question was an improvement. The last and final example portrayed in the video was Interactionist where Genie was able to develop angry emotions and at the beginning of time she did not know how to express in words, however she began to understand her emotion and finding words for the way she was feeling.


Identify different theoretical perspectives of play.

Evolutionary Psychology

1) Play serves a purpose in regards to our survival and reproduction

Behaviorist Perspectives:
1) Play is a response-oriented activity (i.e. we are just responding to stimuli)

Psychoanalytic/Psychosocial Perspectives:
1)Play relieves psychological tension
2) Freud: Pretend play develops the Ego by balancing Id (socially unacceptable urges) with Superego (socially acceptable activities)
3) Erikson: Play helps us overcome anxieties from crises

Cognitive Perspectives:
1) Play experiences influence how we think about/understand the world
2) Piaget: Play experiences allow us to assimilate/add knowledge into our schemes
3) Vygotsky: Pretend play allows children to practice the language and tools of their cultural


What is Kohlberg's perspective on gender development?

a. Children are so rigid about gender norms because they believe norms because they believe sex differences are not biological (If a boy puts on a dress, he is a girl)
b. Gender constancy: children become aware that people are permanently male or female (child realizes that if a guy carries a purse he still a boy, just holding a purse)
i. Stage 1: Gender Identity (9 months-3 years of age)—children label themselves and others as “girls and boys”
ii. Stage 2: Gender Stability (3 years-4 years of age)—Children begin to understand sex/gender are fixed
iii. Stage 3: Gender Consistency (5 years-7 years of age)—Children understand that gender is invariant, despite one’s changes in appearance


What is the psychodynamic perspective of gender development?

a.Freud’s Phallic Stage (Gender begins here, ages 3-6 years)
i.Oedipal complex, Electra complex
ii.Identification with same sex parent and incorporations of their values, attitudes and gender roles

b.Erikson’s Initiative vs. Guilt Stage (ages 3-6 years)
i.Children are learning social boundaries and roles, “What I’m allowed to do?”
ii.This includes gender roles and social norms related to gender
iii.Identification with appropriate gender role is important to healthy psychosocial development—what I’m allowed to do in society, how should I act


What is the biological and evolutionary perspectives of gender development?

Biological perspectives focus on characteristics associated with one’s sex contributes to gender differences
Research has found (Knickmeyer & Baron-Cohen, 2006):
1) Girls exposed to male hormones were likely to display more masculine behaviors
2) Boys exposed to female hormones were likely to display more feminine behaviors

Evolutionary perspectives view gender differences in terms of: mate preferences, survival and reproduction, and parental investment
Research has found (Browne, 2006):
1) Males who show very masculine behaviors are likely to attract females
2) Females who show very feminine behaviors are likely to attract males


What is the social and cognitive perspectives of gender development?

Social learning perspectives emphasize rewards, punishments, observational learning/modeling regarding how we learn gender roles through a social environment.

Cognitive perspectives focus on the child’s mental understanding of how they learn/understand gender concepts.
1) Children establish gender identity through the development of gender schemas

Together, social-cognitive perspectives place an emphasis on learning and organizing information from our environment that heavily influences our early understandings of gender.

Gender development happens throughout the course of one’s life


Identify terminology with how we come to understand ourselves.

a.In preschool years, children develop self-concept, which includes the beliefs one holds about themselves
i.Beliefs include physical attributes (I’m a good runner); Optimistic outlooks of themselves may be accurate; preschoolers self-concept is reflected by the culture in which they live
b.Children develop understandings of their worth: Self esteem

i.Emotional belief about the self/children develop their own standards of success and compare themselves to others
c.Recall self-efficacy (Bandura): Belief that the self can master a situation and produce positive outcomes (similar to feelings of competence by Erikson)


Define theory of mind.

Theory of mind: Beliefs about how the mind works and influences our behavior and ideas that explain other people’s beliefs and behavior


Identify Kohlberg’s levels of moral development.

Preconventional (middle childhood): Children avoid punishment and desire awards
Stage 1: Obey rules to avoid punishment
Stage 2: Obey rules to earn rewards

Conventional (13-16 years old): Children behave in ways that people will like
Stage 3: Want to be respected by others
Stage 4: Obeying society’s rules is the right thing to do

Postconventional (16+ years old): Adolescents have created their own principles of morality—these are more important that societal rules
Stage 5: Socially-contracted actions
Stage 6: Reliance on one’s own moral judgment


Define friendships.

Fact: Friendships are healthy.
As children grow, friendships become the focus

Friendships offer children a number of positive benefits:
Companionship, stimulation, physical support, ego support, social comparison, and sources/outlets for affection and intimacy (Gottman & Parker, 1987)


What is the Id stage of the human psyche (Freud theory)?

Raw part of the personality and is the source of all psychic energy (present from birth)
1) Libido: Operates on the pleasure principle
2) Seeks instant gratification
3) Includes primitive instincts
4) Remains entirely unconscious


What is the Ego stage of the human psyche?

Rational and reasonable part of the personality (develops around 2-3 years of age-toddler years)
1) Operates on the reality principle
--Seeks delayed gratification
2) Requires being psychologically healthy and having ego strength
3) Can operate in the unconscious, preconscious, and the conscious


What is the superego stage of the human psyche?

You need to behave according to parental/cultural expectations (develops around 5-6 years of age)

1) Operates on internalization of caregivers’ rules
2) Includes the ego ideal and the conscience, resulting in morality
3) Remains in the preconscious