Flashcards in Exam 1 Slide Show (Introduction) Pt 1 Deck (50):
What is anatomy?
The science of body structures and the relationships among the structures
How is anatomy first studied?
What is the science of body functions?
What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
Structure and function are intertwined
In order from smallest to greatest, how do the levels of organization work?
Chemical level > Cellular level > Tissue level > Organ level > System level > Organismal level
What are the 7 characteristics of living things?
2. Metabolism (anabolism and canabolism)
3. Irritability (responsiveness)
4. Growth (increase in individual size)
5. Reproduction (increase in numbers)
6. Differentiation (individual & species levels)
What is a good example of anabolism?
In catabolism, how is energy derived?
By breaking bonds (energy is stored in chemical bonds)
Metabolism, being derived from greek, means what?
"change" or "overthrow" (coined by theodore schwann)
What does irritability respond to?
What is homeostasis?
The condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment
Each body structure contributes in some way to keeping____
the internal environment within normal limits.
Describe body fluids
dilute, watery solutions found both inside cells and surrounding cells
How does body fluid relate to homeostasis?
By maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids. It is an important aspect of homeostasis
What are two types of body fluids?
Intracellular fluid (ICF) and Extracellular fluid (ECF)
What is intracellular fluid (ICF)?
The fluid within body cells
What is extracellular fluid (ECF)?
The fluid outside body cells
What are the different types of ECF?
1. Interstitial fluid
2. Blood plasma (or plasma)
4. Cerebrospinal fluid
5. Synovial fluid
6. Aqueous humor and vitreous body
What is interstitial fluid?
ECF filling spaces between cells
What is blood plasma (or plasma)?
ECF within blood vessels
What is lymph?
ECF within lymphatic vessels
What is cerebrospinal fluid?
ECF in and around the brain and spinal cord
What is snynovial fluid?
ECF in joints
What is aqueous humor and vitreous body?
Two different types of ECF within the eyes
How often do disruptions to the body happen?
Where do most disruptions come from?
Many are from the internal environment some are from the external environment
The body has many regulating mechanisms to achieve homeostasis, and these operate through_____
the two control systems of the body
What are the two control systems of the body?
The Nervous system and the Endocrine system
How does the nervous system help achieve homeostasis?
By means of nerve impulses
How does the endocrine system help achieve homeostasis?
By means of hormones
The Nervous system and Endocrine system operate mainly through which feedback system?
Mainly through the negative feedback system
What are the components of a feedback system?
1. Receptor (typically a nerve or chemoreceptor)
2. Control center (typically in the brain)
3. Effector (typically muscles or glands)
What are the two types of feedback systems?
Positive feedback and negative feedback
Negative feedback systems maintain homeostasis by ____
Setting processes in place that reverse the original stimulus
Which feedback system is most common?
The negative feedback system
Positive feedback _______ a change in the condition controlled by the feedback system
strengthens or reinforces
Positive feedback action continues until ______
it is interrupted by some mechanism outside the system
Positive feedback systems may sometimes NOT ____
be actions that seem to be directly attributable to maintaining homeostasis
In a healthy body, controlled conditions are maintained within____
normal limits by feedback systems (typically negative feedback systems)
Homeostatic imbalances result in____
Disorder (any abnormality of structure or function)
Disease (more specific term for an illness characterized by recognizable signs and symptoms)
What are the two type of diseases?
Local and Systemic
What is a local disease?
a disease affecting one part of the body, or a limited region of the body
What is a systemic disease?
a disease affecting several parts of the body, or the whole body
A person with a disease may experience what?
Signs and symptoms
What are signs?
objective changes that can be observed and measured (such as swelling, rash, fever, high blood pressure)
What are symptoms?
subjective changes not apparent to an observer (such as headache, nausea, anxiety)
How are the fingers positioned in the anatomical position?
Fingers are relaxed and sightly flexed.
They are neither closely adducted nor widely abducted.
Fingers are neither prominently flexed nor rigidly extended.
How are the feet positioned in the anterior anatomical position?
Feet are generally facing forward (and toes will likewise be facing forward), but the feet (and consequently toes) may be slightly directed to the side (laterally) in a relaxed fashion.
How are the feet positioned in the posterior anatomical position?
Feet are generally close together, but the heels are not adjacent to each other (they are not touching)