Exam 1 Study Guide (Introduction) (terms) pt 1 Flashcards Preview

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Define Anabolism

Synthetic, energy- requiring reactions whereby small molecules are
built up into larger ones.

1

Define Anatomy

The structure or study of the structure of the body and the relation of its parts to each other.

2

Define Anterior

Nearer to or at the front of the body. Equivalent to ventral in bipeds.

3

Define Catabolism

Chemical reactions that break down complex organic compounds into simple ones, with the net release of energy.

4

Define Body Fluid

Dilute, watery solutions found both inside cells and surrounding cells.

5

Define Caudal

Pertaining to any tail-like struc- ture; inferior in position.

6

Define Cephalic

Pertaining to the head; superior in position.

7

Define Contralateral

On the opposite side; affecting the opposite side of the body.

8

Define Deep

Away from the surface of the body or an organ.

9

Define Cranial

Dealing with the head. Cranial cavity contains the brain. Also known as cephalic.

10

Define Differentiation

Development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized one.

11

Define Disease

Any change from a state of health, refers to an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms.

12

Define Distal

Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the point of origin or attachment.

13

Define Disorder

Any abnormality of structure or function.

14

Define Extracellular Fluid (ECF)

Fluid outside body cells, such as interstitial fluid and plasma.

15

Define Dorsal

Near to or at the back of the body. Also known as posterior when dealing with humans.

16

Frontal Plane

A plane at a right angle to a midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions.

Also called a coronal plane.

17

Define Homeostasis

The condition in which the body’s internal environment remains rel- atively constant within physiological limits.

18

Define Inferior

Away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure. Also called caudal.

19

Define Intermediate

Between two structures, one of which is medial and one of which is lateral.

20

Define Interstitial Fluid

The portion of extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissues; the internal environment of the body. Also called intercellular or tissue fluid.

21

Define Intracellular Fluid (ICF)

Fluid located within cells.

22

Define Ipsilateral

On the same side, affecting the same side of the body.

23

Define Intraperitoneal

Organs within the peritoneal cavity. Also known as peritoneal.

24

Define Lateral

Farther from the midline of the body or a structure.

25

Define Irritability

The body's ability to detect and respond to changes. Also known as responsiveness.

26

Define Lymph (lymphatic fluid)

Fluid confined in lymphatic vessels and flowing through the lymphatic system until it is returned to the blood.

27

Define Local Disease

Affects one part or a limited region of the body (for example, a sinus infection)

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Define Medial

Nearer the midline of the body or a structure.

29

Define Metabolism

All the biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including the synthetic (anabolic) reactions and decomposition (catabolic) reactions.

30

Define Midsagittal Plane

A vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides. Also called a median plane.

32

Define Mucous Membrane

A membrane that lines a body cavity that opens to the exterior. Also called the mucosa.

33

Define negative feedback

A feedback cycle that reverses a change in a controlled condition.

34

Define oblique plane

A plane that passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either the midsagittal, parasagittal, or frontal plane.

35

Define parasagittal plane

A vertical plane that does not pass through the midline and that divides the body or organs into unequal left and right portions.

36

Define parietal layer (of a serous membrane)

The thin epithelium layer attached to and lining the cavity wall.

37

Define pericardium

A loose-fitting membrane that encloses the heart, consisting of a superficial fibrous layer and a deep serous layer.

38

Define peritoneum

The largest serous membrane of the body that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera within it.

39

Define peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum.

40

Define physiology

Science that deals with the functions of an organism or its parts.

41

Define pleura

The serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the walls of the chest and the diaphragm.

42

Define pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleurae (pleural membrane). Also known as pleuritis.

43

Define positive feedback

A feedback cycle that strengthens or reinforces a change in a controlled condition.

44

Define posterior

Nearer to or at the back of the body. Equivalent to dorsal in bipeds.

45

Define proximal

Nearer the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the point of origin or attachment.

46

Define retroperitoneal

External to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity.

47

Define serous fluid

Lubricating fluid secreted from the mesothelium that reduces friction during movement between the parietal and visceral layer. Allows organs to glide easily over one another.

48

Define serous membrane

A membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior. The external layer of an organ formed by a serous membrane. The membrane that lines the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Also called a serosa.

49

Define sign(s)

Any objective evidence of disease that can be observed or measured, such as a lesion, swelling, or fever.

50

Define superficial

Located on or near the surface of the body or an organ. Also called external.

51

Define superior

Toward the head or upper part of a structure. Also called cephalic or cranial.

52

Define symptom(s)

A subjective change in body function not apparent to an observer, such as pain or nausea, that indicates the presence of a disease or disorder of the body.

53

Define systemic disease

Affects either the entire body or several
parts of it (for example, influenza).

54

Define transverse plane

A plane that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions. Also called a cross-sectional or horizontal plane.

55

Define ventral

Pertaining to the anterior or front side of the body; opposite of dorsal.

56

Define viscera

The organs inside the ventral body cavity. Singular is viscus.

57

Define visceral layer (of a serous membrane)

A thin epithelium that covers and adheres to the viscera (organs) within the cavities.

58

Distinguish between anatomy and physiology.

Anatomy - the science of body structures and the relationships among the structures

Physiology - the science of body functions

59

What is the etymology of the word anatomy?

First studied by dissection. Ana = up; tomy = process of cutting.

60

Study of, functions of the heart and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular physiology (P)

61

Study of, the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death.

Developmental biology (A)

62

Study of, the first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg.

Embryology (A)

63

Study of, hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions.

Endocrinology (P)

64

Study of, changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity.

Exercise physiology (P)

65

Structures that can be examined without a microscope.

Gross anatomy (A)

66

Microscopic structure of tissues.

Histology (A)

67

The body’s defenses against disease-causing agents.

Immunology (P)

68

Functional properties of nerve cells.

Neurophysiology (P)

69

Structural changes (gross to microscopic) associated with disease.

Pathological anatomy (A)

70

Functional changes associated with disease and aging.

Pathophysiology (P)

71

Body structures that can be visualized with x-rays.

Radiographic anatomy (A)

72

Specific regions of the body such as the head or chest.

Regional anatomy (A)

73

Functions of the kidneys.

Renal physiology (P)

74

Functions of the air passageways and lungs.

Respiratory physiology (P)

75

Surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation (gentle touch).

Surface anatomy (A)

76

Structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems.

Systemic anatomy (A)

77

Place the following in hierarchical sequence from lowest to highest: cell (cellular), organ, organism, chemical, system, tissue.

1. Chemical level
2. Cellular level
3. Tissue level
4. Organ level
5. System level
6. Organismal level (organism)

78

List the seven characteristics of living things.

1. Cells
2. Metabolism
3. Irritability
4. Growth
5. Reproduction
6. Differentiation
7. Movement

79

Define Cells

The basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals. Also the smallest living
units in the human body.

80

Define Metabolism

The sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body. Also in two phases Catabolism (breakdown of complex chemical substances) and Anabolism (Building up of complex chemical substances)

81

Define Irritability

The body’s ability to detect and respond to
changes. Also known as responsiveness. (an increase in body temperature during a fever).

82

Define Growth

An increase in body size that results from an increase
in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both.

83

Define Reproduction

(1) the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or (2) the production of a new individual. (Increase in numbers).

84

Define Differentiation

The development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state. (A single fertilized human egg (ovum) develops into an embryo, and then into a fetus, an infant, a child, and finally an adult).

85

Define Movement

Includes motion of the whole body, individual organs,
single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells. (After you eat a meal that contains fats, your gallbladder contracts and releases bile into the gastrointestinal tract to help digest).
them.)

86

Compare the frequency and contribution of negative feedback systems with the frequency and contribution of positive feedback systems in the body.

Negative feedback systems will reverse the original stimulus (if getting hotter, it will get colder to return normal temp). It is the most common feedback system.

Positive feedback systems will strengthen the change until the cycle breaks (giving birth with oxytocin). Sometimes its actions do not deal directly with maintaining homeostasis.