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Atom

Smallest unit of matter

1

Proton

Positive particle

2

Non reactive element

Element who's shells are full and are not likely to react

3

Reactive element

Will react with another element to fill up the outer electron shell

4

Atomic number

# of protons in nucleus

5

Atomic weight

Weight of protons and neutrons

6

Polar molecule

Unequal distribution of charge

7

Electron she'll

2, 8, 8,18, 18, 18 etc

92 naturally occurring elements

8

Element

Substance that have all same atoms

9

Covalent bond

Chemical bond between 2+ atoms sharing pairs of electrons.

More common in living orgs

Carbon forms covalent bonds easily (4free)

10

Ionic bonds

Takes an electron or gives

Cation+
Anions-

11

Hydrogen bond

Hydrogen bonds covalently to O and N

Electrons aren't shared equally

Attractions are weak

12

Strengths of bonds

Covalent- strongest
Ionic- middle man
Hydrogen- weakest (5% strength of covalent)

13

Endergonic reactions

Requires energy (ATP)

14

Exergonic reactions

Releases energy

15

Anabolism

Synthesis reaction

A + B —> AB

16

Catabolism

Decomposition reaction

AB —> A + B

17

Exchange reaction

Usually requires enzymes

AB + CD —> AD + BC

18

What molecule is water

Polar

19

What important characteristics does polar give water

Molecule forms 4 hydrogen bonds to other water molecules
- high boiling pt
-ice less dense than water

Good solvent for charged polar molecules
-synthesis and dehydration reactions
-temp buffer

20

Acid

Hydrogen donor (H+)

21

Base

Hydrogen ion acceptor (OH-)

22

Salt

Substance that dissociates in water

Neither H+ or OH-

23

Organic molecules

Always have carbon

Structurally complex

All life is organic

24

Why do organic molecules make up 99% of all living mater?

Carbon based

25

What % of cell makeup is inorganic

1.5%
Except water

26

What are the four major categories of organic molecules

Carbohydrates- sugars
Lipids- fats and triglycerides
Proteins
Nucleic acids

27

Function of carbos

Building block of DNA
Structural (peptidoglycan, cellulose)
Synthesis of fats and amino acids
Food reserves of glycogen
Energy(ATP)

28

Functions of lipids

Structure of cell membranes (phospholipids)
Energy storage from fat

29

Function of proteins

Enzymes
Carrier protein molecules
Defense mechanism
Movement of flagella
Structure of call walls
Regulation of hormones

30

Function of nucleic acids

DNA
Ribonuclease acid

31

3 carbo structures

Monosaccharides- simple building blocks

Disaccharides- 2 monos attached by dehydration

Polysaccharides- 8+ monos

32

Simple lipid

Glycerol and fatty acids

33

Complex lipid

Phospholipid

Glycerol fatty acid and phosphate group

34

What are the building blocks of proteins

Amino acids (20 naturally occurring)
Bound by peptide bonds

35

Protein structures

Primary- sequence of amino acids(polypeptide)

Secondary- helix and pleated sheet

Tertiary- 3D structures (disulfide s-s bond)

Quaternary- 2+ polypeptide chains

36

Building blocks of nucleic acid

Nucleotides
Are made of
1. 5 carbon sugar- deoxyribose or ribose
2. Base- Adenine guanine cytosine and thymine or uracil
3. Phosphate

37

Bac cell shapes

Coccus - low s/v resists drying
Bacillus
Spiral- high s/v ratio sensitive to drying

38

Virulence

Degree to which a pathogen causes disease

39

What ate the two types of glycocalyx and functions

1. Capsule- firmly attached to cell wall
•protects cell from light
• attach to tissue
•food
2. Slime layer- loosely attached
•trap nutrients
•prevent dessication (drying out)

40

Eukaryote glycocalyx

Carbos covalently bonded to plasma mem
1. Strengthen cells
2. Attachment ability
3. Cell to cell recognition

41

Bac flagellum

1. Hooks- attached filament to motor
2. Filament- protein and hollow core
3. Basal body- anchor and motor

Run and tumble

1. HAg
2. OAg
3. KAg

42

Bac flagellum arrangement

Monotrichous- single

Amphitricous- tuft at each pole

Lophotrichous- tuft at one pole

Peritrichous- everywhere

43

Eukaryote flagella

Enclosed by plasma membrane

Moves in wavelike motion

44

What is taxis and 2 types

Movement of bac due to stimuli

1. Chemotaxis- chemical stimuli
2. Phototaxis- light stimuli

45

What is axial filament

Internal flagella beneath outer sheath
Moves through tissues like a drill and fluids

Only in spirochaetes

46

Fimbriae

Polar position over whole surface
Few- 100 per cell

Function- adherence

47

Pilli

Sex pilli
Longer than a fimbriae
1-2 per cell

Function- transfer DNA during conjunction

48

Function of cell wall

1. Shape
2. Protect membranes from environ changes
3. Resist osmotic pressure
4. Anchorage for external structure (flagella)

49

Cell wall makeup

Major component is peptidoglycan
Nag and nam
Tetra peptide (4 amino acids attached to nam)

50

What is teichoic acid

Alcohol (glycerol/ribitol and phosphate)

Regulates cations in and out of cell
Regulates autolysins that degrade cell wall
Antigen for ID
Anchors cell wall to cell membrane

In gram +

51

What is a lipopolysaccharide

In outer membrane of gram -

Heat stable
Weakly immunogenic
Toxic in high doses
Capable of producing fever, blood clots, shock and death

52

Lysozyme

Enzyme that breaks down the nam and nag
Destroys cell wall

53

Penicillin

Presents cross linking from occurring
Works on gm+ because g+ doesn't have an extra outer membrane

54

Function of cell membrane

Separate environment from self
Selectively permeable
Energy production in prokaryotes
Cell to cell recognition

55

Cell membrane makeup

Prokaryotes- phospholipids and proteins
Eukaryotes- phospholipids and few proteins. Carbos and sterols

56

Fluid mosaic structure

Phospholipids and proteins move laterally and freely

57

Simple diffusion

Movement of small molecules

58

Facilitated diffusion

Transport of larger molecules using a plasma membrane protein

59

Group translocation

Multiple proteins may be required
Molecules changed during transport
Doesn't occur in eukaryotes

60

What is cytoplasm

Substance inside the plasma membrane
80% water

61

Prokaryote genomes

Singular chromosome
Circular
No histones
Found in nuclieod
Plasmids

62

Eukaryote genomes

Multi chromosomes
Linear
Histones
Found in nucleus
No plasmids

63

Plasmid

Small circular extra chromosomal DNA foundd in prokaryote cells

Carry resistance genes
Fertility plasmid
Carry metabolism genes
Used as cloning vector

64

Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis

65

Inclusion body

Reserve deposits

66

What is the transmission of rabies

Bites
Aerosol through the mucus membranes
Then spreads from the peripheral nerves to brain and spinal cord

67

Symptoms of rabies in humans

Flu like symptoms (fever headache malaise)
Discomfort at site of bite
Cerebral dysfunction, anx, confusion, hydrophobia
abnormal behavior, hallucinations insomnia

68

Symptoms of rabies in animals

Fever, loss of apatite, behavioral change
Eat everything, aggression, seizures
Choking, inability to swallow, drooling

69

Cause of rabies

Rhabdoviriidae lyssavirus
Neg stranded RNA genome
Bullet shape virion

70

Treatment of rabies

Washing of wound with soap and water
One dose of immune globulin and 4 doses of rabies vaccine over a 14 day time

71

Where are rabies found most

Hot spot on east coast USA
Nit in Hawaii, Nevada,Australia, European countries,Japan new a