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Robert Hooke

Cork tissue
Created call theory

1

Cell theory

All living things are made up of cells

2

Van Leeuwenhoek

Viewed animalcules in rain water and materials scraped from his teeth

3

Describe Francisco redi's experimen

He had 4 jars of meat
1. One was sealed one was open. Sealed did not dev. Mags.
2. One had mesh one was opened. Mesh did not dev. Mags

4

Describe spallanzani's experiment

He sealed boiled nutrient water and scealedt

5

Describe Louis Pasteur'sxperiment

He boiled broth in curved tube
Made pasteurization

6

What else did Pasteur's experiment contribute to the study of microbio?

Basis for antiseptic technique
Pasturization

7

What did fracastoro do

First proposed germ theory

8

What did Semmelweis propose

That hand washing prevented childbirth fever

9

What did lister propose

That phenol on wounds reduced infection

10

What did Koch propose?

He showed that bacteria actually caused disease
Created Koch postulates

11

Who first used immunization as a way to prevent disease?

Chinese healers (smallpox powder )

12

What did Jenner do.

Developed vaccine for small pox using cowpox (milkmaid)

13

What did Ehrlich do

Discovered salvation (arsenic derivative) to cure syphils

14

What did Fleming do

Discovered penicillin

15

List steps of scientific method

1. Observe
2. Formulate hypothesis
3.test hypothesis
4. Keep good controls and variable

16

List the natural rules of science

.. Guided by natural law
.. Explained in reference to natural law (no ghosts)
.. Testable against the real world
.. Conclusions are tentative
.. Falsifiable

17

Define theory

We'll substantiated explanation w laws, facts and hypothesis

18

Law

Generalization of how the natural world behaves under certain circumstances

19

Fact

Observation that is repetitively confirmed

20

Hypothesis

Tentative statement leading to deductions that can be tested

21

Microbiology

The study of microorganisms

22

Taxonomy

The science of classification based on orgs having similar characteristics

23

Phylogeny

Study of evolutionary history of a group or orgs

24

What is the main difference between eukaryote and prokaryote cells

Eukaryotes have nucleus.s and are are membrane bound
Prokaryote cells are not membrane bound and don't have a nucleus

25

How did Aristotle and Linnaeus classify orgs

A= grouped as either plant or animals
L= grouped as either plant or animals but classified and grouped them

26

What were Whittaker s 5 kingdoms

.. Prokaryote
.. Protesta (catch all)
.. Fungi (unicellular yeasts molds)
.. Plantae
.. Animalia (sponges, insects)

27

What was the basis for Woese to classify orgs in the 3 domains

RNA sequencing (16s)

Structures
Me brain lipids
Cell wall compositions

28

Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis
RNA + protein

29

What is the importance of studying phylogeny

To understand the origins of orgs
Improves research

30

Explain the rules for scientific nomenclature

.. Genus name is first and capped
.. Second name is the species epithet not capped
.. Both are underlined or italicizes

31

What is the manual used to identify bacterial species

Bergeys manual of bacteriology

32

Pathology

Study of disease

33

Etiology

Cause of disease

34

Pathogenesis

Manner of disease development

35

Resident bacteria

Normal flora that is permanent but doesn't cause disease

36

Transient bacteria

Only there for several weeks, months, days then is gone

37

What is microbial antagonism

Normal flora preventing overgrowth of harmful microbes

38

What is synergism

2+ orgs working together

39

What are the 3 types of symbiosis

Commensalism- one benefits the other is unchanged (bac on skin)

Mutualism- both orgs benefit (Bowels)

Parasitism- one org living at the others expense (we suffer)

40

Noncummunicable disease

Not spread from host to host (opportunistic bacterium)

41

What is a contagious disease

A communicable disease that spreads quickly

42

What are the categories of disease occorance

.. Incident- # of people contracted during a period of time
.. Prevalence- # of people who have disease at any given time
.. Frequency- how often/how many (demics)

43

Sporadic

Occasional (chickenpox)

44

Endemic

Constantly present in a population (colds)

45

Epidemic

Many people in a short period of time contracting (cholera in sa)

46

Pandemic

Worldwide epidemic, present everywhere in many cases (HIV)

47

What are the 4 categories to define the severity of disease?

Acute
Chronic
Subacute
Latent

48

Acute

Developed rapidly but lasts a short time (flu)

49

Chronic

Developed slowly and lasts a long time (tb, hep b)

50

Subacute

Doesn't develop fast or slow
Doesn't go away fast or slow

51

Latent

Contagious agent that remains inactive (shingles)

52

Local infection

Contained in a small area (boil, abscess)

53

Systemic infection

Spread throughout the body via blood or lymph

54

Focal infection

Enters locally then spreads through blood or lymph but then confined

55

Primary infection

Acute infection that caused initial illness

56

Secondary infection

Caused by opportunistic pathogen after primary infection weakens host

57

Subclinical infection

Infection that doesn't cause any noticeable illness

58

What are the 3 reservoirs

Humans
Animals
No living

59

Zoonoses

Disease caused from wild or domestic animals

60

What are the 3 ways of transmission

Contact
Vehicle
Vector

61

What are the 3 contact transmissions

Direct- person to person contact
Indirect (fomite) person to inanimate object to other person
Droplet

62

What is vehicle transmission and examples

Transmission via medium

- food
- water
- airborne (dust 1 meter)

63

What is a vector

Animals that carry pathogens

-mechanical: passive- fly walks on food
-biological: intentional- mosquito bites

64

Define each interval for the development of a disease

1. Incubation period- infection until signs/symptoms
2. Prodromal- early, mild symptoms/signs
3. Period of illness- disease at its most severe
4. Period of decline- subside of signs/symptoms
5. Period of convalesce- body returns to original state

65

What is an emerging infectious disease

A new or changing disease
Incidence increasing

66

Who is responsible for monitoring EID

CDC, national institute of health, who

67

What are some factors of EID

•overuse of antibiotics
•animal control
•global warming
•transportation
•failure in public healthcare

68

What is epidemiology

The science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations

69

What does an epidemiologist do

•determines the cause of diseases
•identifies other important factors
•various methods for controlling diseases

70

Who were two early epidemiologists

John snow- investigated cholera outbreak in london
Semmelweis- investigated childbirth fever