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DPT 720 Gross Anatomy I > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (28):

Actions of Trapezius Affecting Cervical Spine

-side bend toward
-rotate away


Actions of Rhomboids Affecting Cervical Spine

-if scapula fixed, rotate away and side bend toward


Actions of Levator Scapulae Affecting Cervical Spine

-side bend toward
-rotate toward


Cervical Erector Spinae

-iliocostalis cervicis: cervical transverse processes
-longissimus cervicis and capitis: cervical transverse processes and mastoid process
-spinalis cervics and capitis: to cervical spinous processes and skull



-semispinalis cervicis and capitis: to spinous processes and occiput
-multifidus cervicis: to spinous processes
-rotatores cervicis: to spinous processes


Suboccipital Muscles

-rectus capitis posterior major
-rectus capitis posterior minor
-oblique capitis inferior
-oblique capitis superior


Suboccipital Triangle

-boundaries: space between rectus capitis posterior major, oblique capitis superior, oblique capitis inferior
-floor: posterior arch C1
-roof: erector spinae
-contents: vertebral artery, suboccipital nerve


Nerves of Upper Cervical

-suboccipital: C1-muscles of suboccipital triangle
-greater occipital: C2 dorsal rami-through suboccipital triangle; motor to semispinalis capitis and sensory to back of skull up to apex of skull-gives you headaches
-lesser occipital-C2 ventral rami: sensory to skin lateral skull


Vertebral Artery

-through foramen of cervical transverse processes, turns medially through posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, then superiorly through foramen magnum to brain


Ligamentum Nuchae

-supraspinous ligament of cervical from occiput to C7, T1
-limits cervical flexion and rotation
-attachment for upper trapezius, splenius, spinalis, transversospinalis muscles


Thoracolumbar Fascia

-thick multidirectional connective tissue
-three layers
-posterior attach to spinous process
-middle attach to transverse process
-anterior attach to transverse processes
-basically one flat common tendon for muscles to attach
-predominantly type 1 collagen but irregular in lineup
-between posterior and middle layer: erector spinae and transversospinalis muscles
-between middle and anterior layer: quadratus lumborum
-lateral raphe: lateral part of body where all three layers of fascia get sandwiched together



-pedicle: sticks straight out back
-lamina: archway in back that connects pedicles
-spinous process
-transverse process
-superior articular facet (synovial)
-inferior articular facet (synovial)
-pars interarticularis: between superior and inferior facet
-vertebral foramen: spinal cord, cauda equina
-intervertebral foramen: spinal nerve; where nerve roots exit spine


Spinal Ligaments

-anterior longitudinal
-posterior longitudinal
-intertransverse: limits side bending
-all tighten with rotation
-ligamentum flavum


Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

limit extension
-attaches vertebra, disc, vertebra from skull to sacrum
-gets wider and stronger as it goes inferior
-broad and flat covers front of all anterior bodies


Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

-limits flexion
-vertebra, disc, vertebra all the way down
-gets skinner as it goes inferior; additional support to posterior part of disc, but not much because it gets skinnier as it goes down
-one of two ligaments inside spinal canal; if becomes thickened (i.e. in aging) less space for spinal cord-->compression-->problems with CNS


Interspinous Ligament

-limits flexion
-fills whole area between spinous processes
-short distance ligament


Supraspinous Ligament

-limits flexion
-goes from tip to tip all the way down
-runs from skull all the way to sacrum


Ligamentum Flavum

less type 1 more elastin
-goes from lamina to lamina on inside of lamina
-one of the two ligaments inside spinal canal if becomes thickened (i.e. in aging) less space for spinal cord-->compression-->problems with CNS
-central stenosis: narrowing of central canal of spinal cord-->small injury can have dramatic effect


Lumbar Vertebra

-large body
-short, stout pedicles
-heavy spinous processes
-superior articular processes: facet face medially
-mammillary processes: on superior articular process, attachment of multifidus
-inferior articular process: facet face laterally
-narrow vertebral foramen: no spinal cord in lumbar spine; still have nerve tissue (cauda equina) in here
-almost no rotation
-somewhat blocked in both sidebending and rotation


Thoracic Vertebra

-body smaller than lumbar
-vertebral foramen larger than lumbar
-superior facets face posteriorly
-inferior facets face anteriorly
-long skinny spinous process goes inferiorly
-articulation with ribs on facets on transverse processes and vertebral bodies
-ribs limit sidebending


Thoracic Ligaments

-same as lumbar plus
-radiate ligament: head of rib to vertebral body
-lateral and medial costotransverse: neck of rib to transverse process
-superior costotransverse: neck of rib to transverse process above



-head articulates with body or disc body
-neck just past head, slightly skinnier
-tubercle articulates with transverse process; has facet joint and is synovial
-rib angle attachment for iliocostalis
-costal cartilage is hyaline articular cartilage and makes ribs very flexible
-first rib is at base of neck but not very large, the width of the neck


Cervical Vertebra

-smaller body
-uncinate processes: limit mobility especially of rotation and they are why we can only rotate 90 degrees
-large vertebral foramen
-transverse process has transverse foramen for vertebral artery
-spinous processes ar bifid
-most flexible because of how facets face
-superior facet faces superior and posterior, 45 degrees
-inferior facet faces inferior and anterior, 45 degrees


Occiput Atlas, Atlas Axis

-occiput: base of skull, rounded condyles that sit on superior facet of C1
-C1: atlas has no body; anterior arch, posterior arch, anterior tubercle, posterior tubercle
-C2: axis body, dens (odontoid process-sticks straight up) has articular cartilage front and back
-C1, C2: dens articulates with posterior part of anterior arch of C1


OA, AA Ligaments

-alar ligament: dens to foramen magnum; direct ligamentous connection from dens to head
-cruciate ligament


Cruciate Ligament

-transverse: anterior arch C1 to anterior arch C1 holding dens in palce against C1 but not attaching to dens
-anterior surface covered in articular cartilage
-vertical part goes from body C1 covers back of dens and goes up to occiput
-cruciate part (sideways part) posterior part of anterior arch C1 across back of dens to posterior part anterior arch of C1 again on other side
-50% rotation happens at dens
-superior/inferior: body of C2 to foramen magnum


Intervertebral Disc

-annulus: ligamentous tissue in concentric layers
-fibrous rings that goes around outside
-partly type 1 collagen and fibrocartilage mixed in
-ligamentous like collagen limits motion while fibrocartilage acts as shock absorber
-nucleus: thick fluid like, high in GAGS
-vertebral endplate: thick cancellous (porous) bone, allows transfer of nutrients from body to disc
-when you injure disc, do so from inside out; so injure inner annulus then nucleus moves out to fill nely torn space of annular rings
-lumbar vertebra have thicker rings in back than in front (front is where foramen is)



-three groups
-run inferolateral to superomedial
-semispinalis: 5-6 levels; dominant in thoracic region; little more superficial
-multifidus: 3-4 levels; dominant in lumbosacral region, little deeper
-rotatores: longus 2 levels and brevis 1; deepest
-the deeper the muscle, the closer to the axis of movement, the better it is at stabilizing; the shorter it is at segmental movement