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DPT 720 Gross Anatomy I > Quiz 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (20):

Palm of Hand

-skin adheres directly to palmar aponeurosis
-very taut, not a lot of space between skin and aponeurosis, doesn't really swell
-thick dense irregular CT (type 1 irregular collagen)
-palmaris longus tendon and palmaris brevis inserts into
-does not cover thenar or hypothenar eminences
-extends into palmar side of fingers
-fan shaped but also has transverse fibers


Vascular Supply to Hand

-radial and ulnar arteries
-radial: one branch anterior under palmar ligament (not under flexor retinaculum and goes to thenar side), one branch posterior through anatomical snuff box-splits before wrist
-ulnar: through tunnel of guyon, then splits to superficial and deep branch-splits after wrist


Vascular Arches of Hand

-superficial from anterior branch of radial and anterior branch of ulnar anastomosis (anterior to flexor tendons)
-deep from posterior branch of radial and posterior branch of ulnar (posterior to flexor tendons)
-interosseous branches come off each arch, anastomose with each other, split at web spaces then travel down sides of each digit
-be able to draw this


If you cut your hand what would you cut from superficial to deep?

-skin, aponeurosis, superficial vascular arch, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbricals running parallel, deep arch, then bone (past bone would be interossei)


Finger Pulleys

-aka finger retinaculums
-alternate annular and cruciate
-go around bones into palmar surface of phalanx or volar plates (much like annular ligament of elbow) meant to hold tendons in place
-inside sheaths are superficialis and profundus-named by shape
-prevent bowstringing of long flexor tendons
-annular: 5 that surround
-cruciate: 4 that cross
-most proximal one is A1 pulley


Intrinsic Muscles of Hand

-thenar muscles: abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, adductor pollicis
-hypothenar muscles: flexor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi
-interossei: 4 dorsal 3 palmar
-4 lumbricals


Fromont Sign

-pad to pad: ulnar nerve weakness of intrinsic muscles
-tip to tip: median nerve weakness of extrinsic muscles


Dorsal Interossei

: 4 dorsal interossei #1 goes to second finger; 2nd goes between metacarpals 2 and 3 of middle finger on radial side; 3rd also goes to middle finger on ulnar side; 4th lives between 4th and 5th metacarpal and goes into proximal phalanx of 4th finger on dorsal side; all go to proximal phalanx and extensor mechanism
-draw this too as well as palmar interossei


Interossei and Lumbrical Muscles

-palmer interossei: PADS
-dorsal interossei: DABS
-lumbricals-4: cross on radial side of MCPs
-all flex MCPs and extend IPs


Extensor Mechanism of Fingers

-extensor digitorum longus tendons into
-hood: fibers at 90 degrees, anchors to volar plate
-lateral bands: off hood, cross posterior and lateral to PIP, joint together proximal to DIP, cross DIP and insert into base of distal phalanx
-central slips: cross PIP and insert into base of middle phalanx
-palmar interossei, dorsal interossei and lumbricals all insert into it
-cross MCP on flexor side then into extensor mechanism
-extensor digitorum comes down, hood fibers come off and attach to volar plate, central slip comes off hood and goes down to base of middle phalanx, lateral bands come off sides and attach at the base of distal phalanx
-volar plates=palmar side ligaments covered in articular cartilage so flexor tendons can slide, located at MCs, PIPs, and DIPs and they restrict hypertension



-CT that goes from bone down to flexor tendon that contain tiny arteries and give additional blood supply to superficialis and/or profundus
-weakest spot of any tendon is in the middle where there is a little bit less of a blood supply (one end of supply comes from muscle and other comes from bone on the other-long tendons have lousy blood supply)


Innervation to Hand

-median nerve: motor and sensory
-ulnar nerve: motor and sensory
-radial nerve: sensory only (no intrinsic hand muscles)
-all muscles of hand are ulnar nerve except abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis and first 2 lumbricals which are median



-study pictures at end of slideshow
-color and know regions



-articulates with triquetrum
-ligament that holds distal radius and ulna together (others include interosseous membrane, and posterior and anterior radioulnar collateral ligaments)


Recurrent Branches of Median and Ulnar Nerves

-medial doesn't go under carpal tunnel and does sensory innervation of small part of hand
-ulnar has a branch that doesn't go under tunnel of Guyon and innervates small portion of hand


Lateral and Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous

-lateral is branch of musculocutaneous
-medial comes off medial cord


Hyoid Muscles

-commonly injured in car accidents where you're hit from behind
-car gets shoved forward, body gets shoved forward, head snaps back
-leads to overstretching of muscles
-if you leave your mouth open you can save these from injury


Deep Anterior Cervical Muscles

-lay right on vertebral bodies
-longus colli and capitis are cervical flexors and flatten cervical lordotic curve


Arteries of Cervical Region

-common carotid artery: off arch of aorta
-divides into internal and external carotid arteries
-internal carotid to brain
-external carotid to structures external to skull, especially face
-vertebral artery: off aorta, through transverse processes of cervical vertebra to brain


Veins of Cervical Region

-internal jugular vein: bloom from brain, face, cervical region
-runs with internal carotid artery then common carotid and vagus (CN 10) in carotid sheath (innervates almost all internal organs)
-with subclavian vein to form brachiocephalic vein
-to superior vena cava
-external jugular vein: from exterior cranium and face
-joins with subclavian vein
-becomes brachiocephalic vein: right and left join and becomes superior vena cava
-runs into right atrium of heart