Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

DPT 720 Gross Anatomy I > Quiz 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 4 Deck (22):

Anatomy of Thorax

-ribs and cartilage
-12 pairs; costal cartilage; costo-condral junction
-thoracic vertebrae


Costochondral Junction

-ribs and costocartilage
-costocartilage is hyaline cartilage


Sternocostal Joints

-first rib with sternum is synarthrosis-rib directly to sternum
-second-sixth with sternum: arthrodial (synovial) joints supported by radiate ligaments
-seventh-tenth: interchondral ligaments
-eleventh and twelfth do not articulate with sternum


Superior Thoracic Aperature

-superior opening of chest cavity for
-internal jugular vein
-common carotid artery
-subclavian artery and vein
-bordered by manubrium, first rib, and first thoracic vertebra


Inferior Thoracic Aperature

-piercing through diaphragm include: aorta, inferior vena cava, esophagus



-floor of thoracic cavity
-roof of abdominal cavity
-openings for aorta, esophagus and inferior vena cava
-muscle fibers run from lateral to superior at an angle and top is fibrous like aponeurosis
-large central tendon (aponeurosis) gets pulled down when it contracts creating a negative pressure in chest to allow air to flow


Diaphragm O, I, A, N

-N: phrenic nerve
-shape: dome with muscle running superiorly and aponeurosis at top
-attachments: xiphoid, costocartilage of lower 6 ribs, lumbar vertebra



-thick midline partition from sternum anteriorly to vertebra posteriorly and superior thoracic aperture superiorly to inferior thoracic aperture inferiorly
-superior and inferior mediastinum regions separated at sternal angle and T4-5 discs
-pericardium and heart in middle
-lungs are outside; heart and major vessels are contained within


Pleural Cavity

-two plural cavities on either side of mediastinum; contains lungs
-parietal pleura: lines pleural cavity
-visceral pleura: lines lungs
-potential space between two pleura
-serous fluid lines both to allow sliding between two layers



-right and left separated by mediastinum
-deoxygenated blood to lungs from pulmonary arteries from right ventricle
-oxygenated blood returns to left atrium via pulmonary vein
-right is generally a little larger
-base sits on diaphragm
-apex to just above level of first rib
-costal surface adjacent to ribs
-mediastinal surface adjacent to mediastinum
-hilum: on mediastinum surface where structure enter and leave lungs


Right Lung

-3 lobes
-separated by 2 fissures or invaginations covered by pleural lining
-allows for movement between lobes


Left Lung

-2 lobes
-one fissure or invagination between lobes covered by pleural lining
-allows movement between lobes


Trachea and Bronchi

-trachea: tube held open by C shape transverse cartilage rings with opening (incomplete) posteriorly
-splits into right and left main bronchus
-passes into lungs at hilum
-bronchus further divides within lungs into lobar bronchi, then segmental bronchi



-fibro-serous sac that surrounds the heart and roots of great vessels
-fibrous pericardium: tough connective tissue
-serous pericardium: 2 layers; inner surface of fibrous layer, adheres to heart
-allows for movement between two layers



-apex: forward, downward, left
-base: posterior, superior
-coronary sulci: circles heart and separate atria from ventricles
-anterior and posterior interventricular sulci, separate two ventricles


Right Side of Heart

-right atrium: deoxygenated blood via vena cava (superior and inferior)
-right ventricle: blood from right atrium
-tricuspid valve: between right atrium and ventricle, 3 cusps secured by a fibrous ring
-pulmonary valve: 3 cusps, between right ventricle and pulmonary artery to lungs


Left Side of Heart

-left atrium: oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins
-left ventricle: blood from left atrium
-mitral valve: bicuspid valve between left atrium and ventricle, secured by fibrous ring
-aortic valve: 3 semilunar cusps, left ventricle to aorta


Coronary Vascular Supply

-immediately off aorta as soon as it exits heart you have the coronary arteries that double back into the heart muscle


Cardiac Conduction System

-sinu-atrial node: cardiac pacemaker at superior vena cava and right atrium
-atrioventricular node: near tricuspid
-atrioventricular bundle: continuation of node
-right and left bundles
-sends electrical impulses in coordinated manner throughout heart


Major Cardiac Vessels

-pulmonary trunk: blood from right ventricle to lungs
-superior and inferior vena cava: into right atrium
-right and left brachiocephalic veins: from head and upper extremities into superior vena cava



-ascending aorta: blood from left ventricle, into arch of aorta to descending aorta
-off arch of aorta: right brachiocephalic trunk splits into right subclavian and right common carotid arteries, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
-the stuff that goes to the right side comes off as one artery then splits, the stuff going to the left is already split as it comes off aortic arch


Descending Aorta

-thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta
-hepatic arteries to liver
-renal arteries to kidneys
-common iliac arteries
-external iliac artery into femoral artery
-internal iliac to obturator, superior and inferior gluteal, and pudendal arteries