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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (70):
1

Active range of motion

movement executed w/o assistance
actively contracting muscles

2

Passive range of motion

movement of body part by another person or device w/o effort
-muscles dont contract

3

Resistive range of motion

movement performed against resistance
-muscles active

4

symptom

change in body thar is subjectively described by person
-you cant see it

5

example of a symptom

-headache
-numbness
-pain

6

sign

objective indication of injury determined by examiner

7

exmaple of a sign

-swelling
-skin color
-deformities

8

first 5 steps to eval

1. rule out life threatening situation
2. history of injury
-specific to that injury
3. history of individual
-find out what is normal movement
4. observation
-eyes only
5. palpation
-start away from injured area

9

6-10 of steps to eval

6. test structural integrity
-check all pulses
-ROM
-check nerves
7. test functional activity
-this happens only if we suspect injury is mild
8. decision and action
9. re-evaluate
-continues until back to normal
10. record results

10

RICE stands for...

-rest
-ice
-compression
-elevate

11

benefits of ice
3 of them

-decrease circulation
-decrease cell metabolism
-decrease pain and muscle spasms

12

what is secondary hypoxic injury

-decreases cells need for
O2
-dying cells effect celsl around them

13

benefits of compression

limit internal bleeding to stop edema from time of injury

14

benefits of elevation

helps venous return
limits circulation to injured area

15

timline of sensations during icing

0-3 min: cold/pain
2-7 min: burning/aching
5-12 min: numbness
tingling happens thru out whole time

16

types of ice treatment
4 if them

-cold pack/towel
-ice massage
-ice immersion
-cold whilrpool

17

what is a hemorrage?

escaping blood thru walls of blood vesseels/ruptured vessels

18

arterial hem

-rapid flow
-bright red blood

19

venus hem

-rapid/steady
-dark blood

20

capillary hem

oozing or gradual seepage of blood

21

how do you control a hem?

-direct pressure
-elevation
-cut off pressure points

22

steps taken during emergency

-assess vital signs
-treat for shock
-emergency action plan

23

what is a vital sign?

indicated status of cardio respiratory system and CNS

24

what are the four vital signs?

-pulse: 60-90 bt/min
-resp rate/quality: 12-20 breaths/min
-BP: 120/80-110/70
-temp

25

what is shock?

heart is unable to exert adequate pressure to circulate enough oxygenated blood to vital organs

26

shock is due to...

-damaged heart
-decreased blood volume
-blood vessel dilation

27

shock results in

-heart beats faster
-pulse is weak
b/c blood volume is so low

28

situations that can lead to shock
5 of them

-extreme temp exposure
-extreme fatigue
-extreme dehydration
-severe injury
-illness

29

signs/symptoms of shock
5 of them

-low BP
-systolic < 90
-pulse weak and rapid
-resp shallow and rapid
-may appear drowsy and sluggish

30

treatment for shock
6 of them

-control bleeding if present
-maintain normal body temp
-postion body in comfortable position
-raise feet if no head or chest injury
-O2 treatment if avail
-alleviate pain

31

what is an Emergency Action Plan

written document that is comprehensive yet flexible enough to adapt to any emergency in any setting

32

what should a EAP include
7 of them

-personnel w/ qualification
-equipment needed to carry out any emergency tasks
-mode of communication
-method of transportation
-facility to which patient will be taken
-documentation verifying implecation and eval
-documentation of review and rehersal

33

types of heat illness

-heat cramps
-heat exhaustion
-heat stroke

34

prevention of heat illness
7 of them

-gradual increase intensity of work
-gradual increase of clothing worn
-weight records
-well balance diet
-identify suspectible indivi
-fluid replacement pre/during/post
-temp/humid readings

35

how much water do you lose in one lb

24 oz

36

who is a suspectible individ for heat illness
6 of them

-age extremes
-excessive body wt (in muscle of fat)
-pooly acclimatize or conditioned
-atheletes who constantly compete at capacity
-salt/H2O depletion
-athlete with infection, GI disturbance, illness

37

signs and symptoms of heat cramps
4 of them

-thirst
-sweating
-fatigue
-muscles cramps

38

signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion vs heat stroke

exhau: skin is clammy and gray
stroke: skin is dry and red

39

hyponatremia

very low sodium ions in blood

40

signs and symptoms of hyponatremia
4 of them

-nauseau
cramping
-bloated stomach
-swelling in fingers/toe

41

safe location for lightning

-large enclosed structure with pluming and electricity
-fully enclosed metal vehicle

42

NATA lightning safety
5 of them

-lightning safety policy
-designated weather watcher
-monitor local weather
-designated safe location
-30:30 rule, when lightning 30 secs away, 30 mins after last strike

43

3 methods of moving athlete

-log roll
-lift/slide
-straddle lift and slide

44

3 types of splints

-homemade
-air-splint: possible to move fx
-vacuum splint: immobilize in spot you found

45

effects of heat
6 of them

-increase extensibility of collogen
-decrease joint stiffness
-decrease pain
-decrease muscle spasm
-decrease inflammation
-increase blood flow

46

when do you heat

3 days after injury

47

conduction

transfer heat btwn 2 objects in contact

48

convection

medium such as air or H2O move across body
-more rapid

49

conversion

changing another form of energy to heat
ex chem to heat

50

when do you not use heat?
5 of them

-acute injury
-impaired circulation or sensation
-imparied thermal reg
-directly of eyes of genitals
-abdomen during preg

51

inflammatory response

-injury
-primary trauma: damage to connective tissue, nerve, and muscle
-dmaged to nerve= pain
-cellualr debris: release chems to tell body there is injury
-extra vascular hemmorrage = swelling
-fibrin and platelets close damaged vessels

52

3 forces that cause muscle injury

-compression: comes from one side
-shearing: two running perp
-tension: two from either side

53

causes of muscle injury
4 of them

-overtraning
-strcut abnorm
-lack of flex
-poor biomechan

54

strain

stretch or tear of muscle tendon unit

55

3 degrees of strain

-1st: stretching of some part of unit
-2nd: fibers torn but still intact
-3rd: fibers torn/ruptured completely

56

contusion lead to

myositis ossification

57

myositis ossification

severe blow to body where muscle impacts the bone and bone starts forming new bone

58

muscle compartment syndrome

-fascia around muscle does not exapand
-as muscle get larger it puts pressure on fascia
-increase pressure on blood flow and nerve transmission
-decreased O2 and blood flow

59

muscle hernia

muscle leave spaces it supposeto occupy and occupys a diff space

60

complete tendon rupture

-happens when extreme overload
-there will be no strenth in ROM

61

partial tendon rupture

-only a few fibers of tendon rupture
-treat like tendonitis

62

tendonitis

inflamation of tendon or surrounding tissue

63

signs and symptoms of tendonitis

-swelling
pain on movement
-point tenderness

64

treatment for tendonitis

-rest and ice
-stretch
-strengthen
-antiinflamatories
-gradual return

65

greenstick fracture

incompete break of not yet ossified bone

66

comminuted fracture

three of more fragments

67

impacted fracture

bone will shrink
long bone recieves force on long axis

68

spiral fracture

an S shape seperation

69

contrecoup fracture

side opposite of impact

70

stress fracture

weakness in bone