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Flashcards in foot Deck (57):
1

what is the foot designed for?
4 things

-strength
-stability
-flexibilty
-cooridniation

2

how many phalange bones are there

-14
-5: prox
-4: mid
-5: distal

3

what is the function of the arches of the foot
3 things

-assist in support of body
-absorb shock
-space for vessels/nerves/muscles

4

job of innerlogintudinal arch

serves for movement

5

what is the inner longitudinal arch composed of

-calca
-talas
-navicular
-1st cuneiform
-1st metatars

6

what is the supporting lig of the inner long arch

-plantar calcaneonavicular log
-returns arch to orginal position after being stretch

7

job of outer long arch

support

8

what side of foot is the outer long arch on?
what is it comprised of

-lateral
-calcan
-cuboid
-5th metatars

9

what is the anterior metatars arch shaped by

heads of metatarsals

10

where is the transverse arch?

across transverse bones
-cuboid and cuneiform

11

what is the mortis?

made by malleoli of tib and fib
-talis sits inside of this

12

ligs on the lat side
5 of them

-ant tibiofibular
-pos tibiofibular
-ant talofibular
-calcaneofibular
-post talotibular

13

what ligs of the foot are the most easily injured

-ant talofib ***
-calcaneofibular
-post talofibular

14

ligs on medial side

deltoid (3 parts)

15

muscles of anterior compartment/main movement of these muscles

-tibialis anterior
-extensor hallicus longus
-extensor digitorum longus
-main move: doriflex

16

muscles making up the lateral compartment/main movement

-peroneus longus
-peroneus brevis
-peroneus tertius
-main move: eversion

17

what is the peroneal retinaculum

hold peroneal tendons in place at ankle

18

where does the sup and inf peroneal retinaculum hold the tendons

sup: behind lat malleolus
inf: below lat malleolus

19

what muslces are in the superficial posterior compartment
main movement

-gastrconemius
-soleus/plantaris
main move: planta flex

20

what muscles are in the deep posterior compartment

-tibialis posterior
-flexor hallicus longus
-flexor digitorum longs

21

where does the flexor retinaculum hold the tendons

behind the med malleolus

22

what is a bunion

thickening of bursa

23

signs and symptoms of bunion

-swelling
-redness
-pain from abnorm pressure/pressure of bursa inflam

24

mechanism of bunion

shoe too narrow or short

25

treatment of bunion

-ice
-ultrasound
-reposition toe

26

what is hallux valgus

deform of 1st metatars jnt caused by valgus move of great toe

27

what is turf toe

sprain of 1st MP jnt

28

mechanism and treatment of turf toe

mech: hyperexten of great toe
treat:
-ice
-tape toe in neutral position
-shoes to prevent hyperextension

29

what causes pain in atnerior metatars arch

-supporting ligs/muscles lose ability to retain metatars heads in dome

30

what results from pain in anterior metatars arch

-falling arch shape
-places pressure on nerves and blood vesels
-changes the way you walk

31

treatment of pain in anterior metatars arch

-ice
-rest
-whirlpool exercises
-metatars arch pad
-orthotics/better fitting shoes

32

what is the result of pain in inner long arch

-foot will pronate and pull on tendons

33

special treat for pain in inner long arch

tape inner long arch and strengthen foot flexors

34

what is the proper term for "shin spint"
what are they?

-medial tibial stress syndrome
-dull aching pain along anterior crest of tibia and fib during running

35

prevention of shin splints

-proper fitting shoes
-run on soft ground

36

causes of shin splints
5 of them

-lack of ROM/flexibility/stength
-aka lack of conditioning
-running on hard ground
-change athletic shoes
-weak/flat long arch

37

treatment of shin splints

-ice massage
-exercises
-tape top of malleoli around arch

38

what exercises can you do to treat shin splints

-pick up marbles w/ toes
-srunch towel under arch of foot

39

how is the retinaculum involved in shin splints

-ret spreads
-tendons raise and muscles pull away from bone

40

what is plantar fascitis

-inflam of plantar fascitis

41

order of ligs to be sprained in inversion ankle sprain

-1st: ant talo tib
-2nd: calcaneofibular
-3rd: post talo/ant tib fib

42

how to perform eversion stress test
stresses what?
what are you looking for?

-move talus and calc into eversion
-stresses deltoid lig
-look: increase pain and increased ROM

43

how to perform side to side movement of talus
what does it test for?
looking for what?

-move calc and talus from side to side
-testing: high nakle sprain
-look: thud as talus hits fib b/c mortus widened

44

how to perform anterior drawer test of ankle
what are you testing?
what are you looking for?

-ankle slight dorsi flex
-one hand hold lower tib and exert slight post force
-other hand on post calc and attempt to bring calc forward
-test: ant talo fib
-look: excessive forward movement

45

how to perform talor tilt (inversion test)
what are you testing?
what are you looking for?

-attempt to tilt talu into inversion
-test: ant talo fib and calcaneofibular
-look: laxitity and pain

46

signs and symptoms of 1st degree anke sprain
6 of them

-person may walk
-little to no pain
-tenderness at site
-pain when lig stretched
-little to no swell
-3-7 days

47

signs and symptoms of 2nd degree ankle sprain
6 of them

-same as 1st but more intense
-be able to bear weight but not walk
-pain w/ norm ROM/tender at site
-more pain than 1st when stressed
-abnorm movement in ROM
-2-4 weeks

48

signs and symptoms of 3rd degree sprain of ankle
7 of them

-complete loss of func't/cant bear wt
-spasm restricts ROM
-severe tenderness over area
-excessive dicoloration/swelling almost immediately
-may go into shock
-6-8weks
-w/ fracture 4-6 weeks

49

pre treatment procedure for cyro
-prepare patient physically

-make sure injury has been evaluated
-remove clothing
-position patient comfotablly

50

pre treatment procedure for cyro
-prepare patient psychologically

-explain 4 sensations of ice
explain that the ice will be painful but it will be worth it

51

procedure of cryo

-apply ice thru 4 sensations
-goal of ice is to get to numbness
-exercise the area
-repeat making usre patient reaches numbness in btwn exercises

52

keys ideas about cryo

-all exercises should be actie
-exercises shold be graded by pain
-go thru complete ROM
-exercises performed w/o brace

53

two bursa of the achilles tendon

superficial retrocalcaneal bursa: btwn skin and tendon
deep ": btwn tendon and calcaneus

54

division of foot

-forefoot: metatars and frwd
-mid foot: navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiforms
-hindfoot: talus and calcaneus

55

where does the talus sit?

under the mortis and above the sustentaculum tali on calcan

56

what movements do the transerve foot bones allow

-rotaiton
-inversion
-eversion

57

what are the sesamoid bones in foot
what function do they serve
where are they located

-located: 1st metatarsal phalangeal jnt
-flexor hallucis brevis tendon found inbtwn them
function:
-assist in reducing pressure in wt bearing
-alleviate friction during movement
-act as sliding pulleys for tendon