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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (45):
1

Essential Vitamins

Essential
Produce deficiency symptoms wen missing from the diet
fat-soluble vitamins
water-soluble vitamins
DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY ENERGY OR YIELD ENEGERY.

2

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin C
Vitamin B
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Thiamin
Niacin
Floate
Riboflavin, Biotin
Pantothenic acid

3

Fat-Soluble

Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

4

Water-soluble vitamins PT2

-Stored in small amounts
-less toxic
-High dose is excreted via urine
-take less time for a deficiency to develop due to limited stores

5

Fat-Soluble pt2

-Must be absorbed with fat
-stored in large amounts
-deficiency takes a long time
-the high toxicity of vitamin D and A/ over-use of fat-soluble vitamins

6

Folate

Required to produce new cells
ex= Red blood cells
Pregnancy -fetal development
Neural tube development
1st week of pregnancy

7

Folate deficiency

Anemia (Megaloblastic) (low red blood cells)- large, immature red blood cells
Neural tube defects-a defect formation of the neural tube(spinal cord and brain) during early fetal devlopment

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Neural tube defects

Neural tube develops in the 1st month of gestation
defects occur when a spinal column or skull don't form properly

9

Spina Bifida

Failure of the neural tube to close
spinal cord bulges through the back
results in paralysis

10

Sources of folate

-Enriched pasta,cereal,rice,beans
-Drak leafy green veggies
-beans
-orange juice
all women that become pregnant should have folate

11

Vitamin D Functions

-Prohormone- works like a hormone, sends signals to organs
-helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the gut -kidney, and bones
-tells kidneys not to get rid of too much calcium

12

Sources of Vitamin D

-Milk, margarine, eggs, fish
Sunlight, cholesterol under the skin converts into vitamin D

13

Vitamin D -Sunshine Vitamin

Derived from cholesterol
synthesized from sun exposure
sunscreen spf>8 decreases synthesis by 95%
expose hands, face,arms2-3 times a week for 5-10 mins each time ( more for darker skin)
insufficient sun exposure makes this a vitamin that must be gotten through the diet
activated by enzymes in the liver and kidneys

14

Toxicity Warning for Vitamin D

Vitamins D can be toxic especially in infancy and childhood
the upper level is 50 ug/day
this results in
over- absorption of calcium (hypercalcemia) increase calcium excretion
calcium deposits in organs and blood vessls

15

Vitamin D Deficiency

Rickets in kids-Bowed leg /bones cant support the weight of the body
Osteomalacia for adults with soft bones

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Groups at risk for Vitamin D Deficiency

Elderly ill, Homebound
those with limited sun exposure, poor intake of vitamin D goods

17

Vitamin A functions

Leading cause of blindness
Bone formation
Eye health
Vision in dim light
promotes immune function- plays a role in the production of white blood cells
all cells need vitamin A

18

Retinoids

An active form of vitamin A
found in animal products

19

Carotenoids ( converted into vitamin A)

Found in plant products
Beta-carotene
the body returns beta-carotene into vitamin A

20

Sources of Vitamin A

Liver, butter, milk.cheese,eggs,fortifed cerlas
Veffies(beta cartone =carrots, squash

21

Vitamin A deficiency

Impression-night blindness
Xerophthalmia-leading cause of blindness in 3rd world countries due to lack of beta-carotene
golden rice-genetically modified rice that is rich in beta-carotene

22

Vitamin A toxicity

Pregnancy-cause malformation in the fetus
Even acne drugs- contain vitamin A could be toxic to the fetus.

23

Phytochemicals=Plants

-Chemical substances found in plants that affect our health in a positive way.
Non-esstenail or classifed as a nutrient
obtained via diet

24

Phytochemical functions

-Provide color, flavor and odor to foods
found in plants ( fruits and veggies)
over 4000 different phytochemicals known

25

Phytochemicals and Disease

MAY HELP PREVENT
Cancer
Diabetes
Hypertension

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Phytochemicals disease prevention

-Some cat like hormones
some have antioxidant properties
Block enzymes that promote cancer
some help lower cholesterol levels
we don't fully understand how they function or how much is needed

27

Types of phytochemicals

Carotenoids- Act as antioxidants, thought to reduce cardiovascular disease and cancer
found in dark leafy veggies deep oranges and red veggies and fruits
type of carotenoids are Lycopene and Limonene

28

Lycopene

Tomatoesd.tomato sauce, canned tomatoes
they protect against cancer of the GIT

29

Limonene

Citrus fruits
lower risk of cancer

30

Flavonoids

Acts as antioxidants
found in grapes juice, black tea, many herbs and spices, cholate and soy products
may increase HDL
Relaxation of smooth muscles-decrease blood pressure

31

Types of Phytochemicals PHYTOSTEROLS

Phytosterols =Acts like a hormone Estrogen
thought to reduce many cancers and osteoporosis
found in soy products and legumes

32

(Type of Phytosterols) Genistein

gENISTEIN (SOYBEANS)- Inhibits breast, prostate, colon and ovarian cancers
- May reduce risk of osteoporosis

33

Organosulfur CompoundS

- May protect against cancer
- May benefit blood pressure
- Found in chives, onions, garlic and leeks

34

Types of Organosulfur Compounds

Allicin
Indoles

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Indoles:

Cruciferous vegetables
- Broccoli, cabbage
- Sulfur containing
- Protects against cancer

36

Allicin:

- Garlic, onions, scallions
- Prevents cancer
- Lowers cholesterol production

37

Other Phytochemicals

Chocolate (especially dark):
- Increases HDL cholesterol

Capsaicin (hot peppers, black pepper):
- Decrease blood clots and risk of heart disease

38

Ways to Increase Phytochemical Intake

- Fresh is best (except canned tomatoes, which can also be a good source)
- Leave skin on when possible
- Steam, broil, stir fry when cooking
- Avoid boiling
- Eat a variety of foods (especially brightly colored foods)
- Strive for 5 servings of fruit and vegetables
- Use herbs and spices in cooking

39

Phytochemical Supplements

No RDA's set
- Still, a lot we don't know about it
- Toxicity unknown
- Many phytochemicals act together
- Can alter body functions (can have a negative effect in high doses; some studies have shown increased cancer risk with genistein supplements)
- Safest source of phytochemicals is in food

40

Functional Foods

Foods that provide an additional physiological or psychological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs

41

Functional Foods - Physiological

Benecol (plant stanol ester):
- Lowers cholesterol

Calcium fortified orange juice:
- May help prevent osteoporosis

Tea with echinacea:
- May help fight off a cold

42

Functional Foods - Psychological

Benecol-plant stanol ester=lowers cholserol
Calisum fortifed OJ-may help prevent osteoprosis

Tea with Echinacea-may help fight off a cold


St. John's Wort (herb)soup =Decrese depression

43

Functional Foods - Benefits

Individuals with milk allergy:
- Calcium fortified orange juice
Benecol:
- May help lower cholesterol without medication

44

Probiotics

Bacteria/Lactobacillus added in yogurt
Benfits =decrse dieherria ,constipation

45

Fuctioal food concerns

Getting too much of one nutrient
too much of one herb
st johns wort/birth control
can be toxic