Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition exam 2 > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (38):
1

Statistics

48 Million illnesses per year in the U.S form foodborne illness
-3000 Deaths a year
1/2 of all flu/GI illnesses caused by foodborne illness
-The U.S still one the safest food supplies in the world.

2

foodborne Illness

any symptom of disorder that arises from ingesting food or water contaminated with pathogenic microorganism their toxic secretions or poulltuains, and industrial chemicals.

A major cause of diarrhea and vomtting illness

Usually results from unsafe food hanling in the Home

3

Food Safety Agencies

USDA
FDA
CDC

4

USDA

U.S Department of Agriculture - Overseas safety of meat poultry and eggs

5

FDA

Food And Drug Administration- Regulates all other food products besides (Meat, Poultry, and eggs)

6

CDC

Center for Disease Control and Prevention- (Investigators) Track information needed to identify foodborne illnesses
outbreaks, educate the public about food safety

7

Causes of Foodborne illness

Raw meats-Individual choice
Mishandling of foods
-Preference for "rare" meats
-Use of immunosuppressant medication
-Increase in number of older adults
-Mass production and distribution of food

8

Where can things Go Wrong

Raw material intake
Sorting and gathering /gardening
harvesting of spinach
-packing
-cooling or chilling or freezing
washing
storage
-transport
-grocery store
-In your home or restaurant

9

Foods most likely to become unsafe

-Milk and dairy
-eggs
-fish
-poultry
-Beef(ground)
-cut leafy greens
-sprouts
-shellfish
-sliced melons

10

Types of foodborne illness VIRUSES

-HEPATITIS A

11

HEPATITIS A

Source- Feces of an infected person/ affect the liver

Food-Shellfish contaminated by sewage

Symptoms- Fever, Nausea, Jaundice= Yellow in the eyes and skin

Preventions- employees with Hep A cannot work with food. Wash hands, Shellfish from reputable sources

12

Bacteria

Salmonella

13

Salmonella

Bacteria found in cattle, poultry, eggs. water sources

Food Sources- Undercooked poultry and eggs

Sources- Human Feces and infected animals

Onset- 6-24 hours after infection

Symptoms- GI Influneusa vomiting, fever, chills, diarrhea, dehydration

14

Salmonella Prevention

-Cook food thoroughly-red meats, eggs poultry
Use pasteurized milk and egg products
use water from approved water sources
wash all products thoroughly

15

Botulism

-Food sources: low-oxygen environment (baked potatoes, canned foods), home-canning of food, untreated garlic oil mixture

-Rod-shaped, spore-forming anaerobic bacteria
-Spores are widespread due to water and dust and can be present on food

-Onset: 4-36 hours (need immediate care)

-Symptoms: difficulty swallowing/breathing, nerve damage, respiratory failure, death

-Prevention: heat, proper canning methods, avoid broken/bent/bulging cans
-HONEY can contain botulism spores; can kill infants younger than 1 year old

16

Listeria (Soft Cheese)

Food sources: vegetables, soft/unpasteurized cheese Brie=Soft cheese

-Source: infected soil or infected animals

-Onset: 7-30 days

-Symptoms: stillbirth= dies later in pregnancy
, meningitis in new borns= brain infection
-Prevention: pregnant women should avoid soft/unpasteurized cheeses

17

Shigellosis - Keep flys away from food

-Source: feces, flies

-Symptoms: bloody diarrhea

-Prevention: control flies, wash hand

18

Staphylococcus Aureus

-Source: human hair, nose, throat, open cuts
---Deli meat, egg salad, tuna salad

-Symptoms: nausea and vomiting

-Prevention: wash hands, bandage, and gloves if open cuts, refrigerate foods.

19

E. coli

Food sources: raw or undercooked beef, water supply, fruits/veggies, unpasteurized milk/juice

-Source: infected cattle, human waste

-Onset: 12-72 hours

-Symptoms: watery, bloody diarrhea, kidney failure, death

-Prevention: heat, pasteurization- treatment of milk with heat to kill certain pathogens commonly transmitted

20

Parasite- Giardiasis

-Food sources: contaminated water (lakes, streams, etc.), common among campers and hikers drinking contaminated water

-Source: human waste that gets into the water supply

-Onset: 3-21 days

-Symptoms: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

-Prevention: boil water, filtration systems, add iodide tablets to water

21

Mad Cow Disease

-Protien (prions) found in the intestine and Central Nervous System of bovine thought to be the cause

-Prions spread from one animal to another (if by-products (brain) of the infected animal is used to feed other animals (Banned in the U.S and Canada

-Cooking does NOT destroy prions

-Onset: 2-30 years

-Symptoms: psychosis, seizures, paralysis, and death in humans that consume infected meat

22

Most Susceptible to Foodborne Illness

Developing fetus Infants and children
-Immature immune system
-Older adults
-Those with liver disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, cancer
-Pregnant women
-People taking immunosuppressant agents (like after organ transplants Cancer patients
Those with compromised immunity

23

Avoiding Microbes at the store

Buy frozen perishable foods last
-place meats in separate plastic bags
-Buy only pasteurized milk/cheese
-Don't buy dented cans

24

Avoiding Microbes when cooking

Thoroughly cook meat fish poultry, eggs
Check for doneness with a thermometer
cook stuffing separately-high risk group
store leftovers within 1-2 hours
serve cooked meat on clean plates
FIFO- first in first out- store raw meat, poultry, and seafood on the bottom of the refirigerator

Thermometer
poultry-156 degrees
Meat- 155 degrees
seafood-145 degrees

25

Avoiding Microbes at Home

wash hands thoroughly
soap 20 secs air dry or paper towel
wash: after using the bathroom, touching raw meat, poultry and touching face hair and body.
keep counters, cutting boards, equipment clean and sanitized
refrigerate meat for 1-2 days
frozen for 3-4 months
Thaw foods in Fridge/cold running water
or microwave
wash fruits and veggies
remove mold or discard foods

26

Avoiding Microbes at Home

Keep food cold <40 F
Keep Hot food > 140 F
When in doubt throw it out
Danger zone 40-140 F (Bacteria thrives on these temperature ranges)

27

Prevention

Fight BAC-Bacteria
Clean
Chill
Separate
Cook

28

Genetically Modified Organisms GMOs

-Definition: organisms that have been genetically engineered to contain both original and foreign genes

-Began in 1990s

-US: corn, cotton, canola, and soybeans

29

purpose of GMOs

-Reduce the amount of pesticide use
-Improve crop tolerance to herbicides
-Add nutritional value (example: "golden" rice, high in beta-carotene and iron)

30

Future of GMOs

Crops free from allergy-causing constituents

-Crops that survive harsh conditions - drought conditions

-Microorganisms that create hydrocarbon fuels

31

GMO Concerns

-Introduction of allergens: labelling laws (milk, eggs, etc.)

-An excessive level of toxins: monitored

-Changes in nutrients: monitored

-Creation of new substances: must be approved by FDA as would any other additive

-Lack of biodiversity

32

FDA

Ensure food is safe to eat

33

USDA

Ensure plants are safe to eat

34

EPA

Ensure foods will not affect environment

35

Labeling of GMO foods is not mandated by FDA

Little scientific evidence that GMO foods are different in nutritional content than conventional foods

36

FDA requires Labeling (GMO)

If introduced NEW allergen
More nutrients than original food.

37

Immune system

many foodborne contaminants are destroyed by antimicrobial enzymes in saliva one hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Exposure can trigger vomiting and diarrhea - the body is trying to get rid of toxins

38

Norovirus

Source- Infected persons

Foods- Ready to eat foods, seafood

Symptoms- Vomiting and diarrhea

Prevention- employees cannot work, need to wash hands