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Flashcards in Food assistance program Deck (24):

Food Insecurity

- Unable to obtain enough food to meet physical needs, every day due to insufficient money or other resources for foods.

--11% of U.S. households

-In households below poverty level, 36% experience food insecurity

-High rates of obesity
-cost of foods


Obeisty and food insecurity

- Cost of fast foods vs. fresh produce

-access to foods

-Grocery stores, farmers market- access limited in some areas

-Poor quality produce

corner stores fast foods- usually plentiful

-Acess to physical activity

-Safe parks and playgrounds

-Well maintained sidewalks


Cycle of devlopment and overreacting

eating less skipping meals

-stretch foods- budget may overact when does become available;e

chronic ups and downs may lead to weight gain.


Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Snap Program)

-AKA food stamps

-Largest US food assistance program

- 45.8 million people on food stamps

average $132 per person on a single month

Participants receive benefits to purchase food in authorized retail food stores

-Benefits via Electronic Benefit Transfer card (similar to ATM card)

-Benefits are inversely related to income

Restrictions- Cannot buy alcohol, cigarettes, pet foods vitamins or hot foods


History of SNAP

-1939: distributed orange (any food item) and blue (USDA surplus foods) stamps

-1961: eliminated stamps for surplus foods

-1964: Food Stamp Act
---Each state developed eligibility standards
---All food except alcohol and imported foods were allowed
-Discrimination was prohibited

-The 1980s: elimination of sales tax on food stamp purchases, eligibility for homeless, more nutrition education

-1996: place a time limit on food stamp receipt for healthy adults with no dependent children

-The 2000s: phased out Food Stamp name to SNAP (reduce stigma)


SNAP Eligibility Criteria

1. Household: one containing people who live together and purchase and prepare meals together

2. Monthly gross income test: household income NYS= $2213 monthly gross income. household income is <130% of the poverty line

3. Asset - households assets, cars stocks, savings or retirement aren't considered.

-Many people don't participate because of stigma, transaction costs, and the small benefits (some families get $10 per month)

Maximum SNAP Allowance- maximum money family 4 gets is 640$
household of one gets 192$ monthly


SNAP Budgeting

Many families run out of monthly allotment before the end of the month

-Increase budget allotments
-Biweekly or weekly disbursements
-Education on shopping


Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

-Goal: to provide supplemental nutritious food during critical growth and development (pregnancy, postpartum period, infancy, early childhood up to age 5)

-Provides: food, nutrition education, referrals to other health and social services

-Targets low-income, nutritionally at-risk pregnancies

-45% of all infants born in the US served by WIC

Congress authorizes a specific amount of funding each year
2,000 local agencies
10,000 clinic sites

Food vouchers to be used in authorized stores.

5.4 billion and 3.9 billion goes to food coat the rest goes to administrative costs


WIC Eligibility

-Pregnant or postpartum women, infants, children

-Meet income guidelines: <185% poverty threshold


WIC Research Studies

Benefits of WIC program- Studies that compared WIC participants with individuals that meet criteria for WIC but did not participate in the program

-Fewer gestational age births

-babies born on time but underweight
lower infant mortality rates

increased birth weights

increased nutrient intake

the decrease in material animea


WIC Food Provides

Vouchers for: Fortified breakfast cereals
Iron-fortified baby cereal and formula
peanut butter

Calcium and vitamin D
100% fruit and veggies
whole grains

Some clinics provide vouchers to be used at framers markets-Formula


WIC Priority

Pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and infants determined to be at nutritional risk because of medical problems

infants 6 months whos mom participated in WIC or could have participated and had serious medical; problems

Children (up to age 5) at nutritional risk because of serious medical problems

breastfeeding moms at risk due to poor diet


Wic supports brestfeeding

WIC mothers how to breastfeed their babies are provided counseling services and breastfeedings educational materials

Breastfeeding moms receive greater quantity and variety of foods than mothers who fully formula feed their infants

Breastfeeding mothers are eligible to participate in WIC longer than breastfeeding mothers
-Breastfeeding moms receive breast pumps


National School Lunch Program

-101,000 public and nonprofit private schools participate

-Provides nutritionally-balanced, low-cost, or free school lunches

-Established in 1946: USDA administers the program

-Schools are reimbursed ($2.72 for every free lunch, $2.32 for every reduced price lunch, $0.26 for every full price lunch)


National School Lunch Program Guidelines

Must serve lunches that meet the following guidelines: <30% calories from fat, <10% saturated fat, 1/3 RDA for protein, Ca, Fe, Vit. A/C, and calories

Sodium restriction and calorie based on age <750mg per meal


Eligibility for Free Lunches

-Family income <130% poverty level = free lunches

-Between 130-185% of poverty level = reduced-price lunches


National School Breakfast Program

Federally-assisted meal program

-2007 - 10.1 million children participated

-Offers free or reduced-price breakfast meal before school begins


National School Breakfast Program Eligibility

-Any child at school can purchase a breakfast meal

-Free meals = family income <130% of federal poverty level

-Reduced-price meals = family income between 130-185% of poverty level


National School Breakfast Program Criteria

-Breakfast meal can provide no more than 30% of individuals calories from fat

-Less than 10% from saturated fat

-1/4 of the RDA for protein, calcium, iron, Vit. A/C, and calorie


The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)

-Goal: federal program that supplements the diet of low-income people by providing them with emergency food assistance

-Started in 1981 to distribute commodity foods

-Supplies food to food banks, soup kitchens, etc.

-USDA makes food available to state distributing agencies

Amount of food given is based on state unemployment rate and # of people with incomes below poverty levels.


National school lunch programs guidelines

Most schools do not meet guidelines for
sodium 40% of schools fail to meet the fat guidelines
2/3 fail to meet the saturated fat guidelines

Schools don't have to mee the federal guidelines every day, only over the course of a week
-Schools can have serve hotdogs, french fire, hamburgers, etc.


New guidelines

Must not exceed calorie levels
-based on a group
-1/2 grains must be whole grains
must provide low-fat milk but strawberry and cholate are allowed
-more fruits and veggies


Other food options in schools(Competitive foods)

-vending machines
-schools stores
snack carts
after school fundraisers, concession stands at sporting events and birthdays NOT INCLUDED


New guidelines for competitive foods

-Snacks <200 calories
-meet requirements for fat, saturated fat and sugar, no trans fats
-Must be a fruit, veggie, dairy products, whole grain product or a combination food.