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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (40):
1

Water

-Most essential nutrient
-50-70% of body weight is fluid

-Intracellular fluid = fluid within the cells

-Extracellular fluid = fluid outside the cells

2

Functions of Water

Solvent- allows the body to mix nutrients
Helps remove toxins
Cushion-Amniotic fluid for baby/fetus
coolant-Cool the body down

3

Temperature Regulation

When you're overheated...
-Body perspires
-Sweat evaporates through pores
-Heat energy is removed from the skin
-Body is cooled
105 degrees can be delady

4

Fluid Recommendations

1ml/kcal
individualzied 1ml/kcals=2200 ml (~9cups)
1cup=240 ml
recommendationtions: 9 cups/day for females and 13 cups//day for males as a starting point

5

Increased fluid needs

-Hot humid weather conditions
-Excserise
-Diet /high protein diet-nitrogen needs to excrete via urea
-Alcoholic diet/diurectic=increased urine production
-High fiber diet
Illness vomiting, fever, diarrhea

6

Water Loss

-Urine: greatest amount of water loss
-Stool: diarrhea (increased losses)
-Perspiration: exercise and heat increases loss
-Exhaled air

7

Dehydration

-Thirst = early dehydration

-Urine color: dark urine, low volume (urine should be a pale yellow)
---1 lb loss = 2 cups fluid

-Symptoms: headache, dry mouth, dark urine

-Advanced dehydration: muscle spasm, sunken eyes, delirium, death

8

Minerals

Major minerals
require > 100mg/day
Exanples: calcium ,phosphotus

Trace minerlas
Require <100mg/day
Examples Iron,zinc
Sodium

9

Sodium

Found as sodium chloride (table salt)

40% sodium
60% chloride
1tsp of slat=2,400mg sodium

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Functions of Sodium

water balance- water follows sodium

Nreve transmission=require sodium

Muscle contraction

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Deficiency Symptoms of sodium

muscle cramps
shock
nausea and vomiting
coma
dizziness

People who are eating less than 500mg a day
Low sodium diet
Excessive amounts pf sweating=athlete
persistent vomiting/diaherra

12

Hypertension

Blood Pressure
Systolic-Herat contracting

Diatolic - in between heartbeats

Normal <120/80

High Blood Pressure >140/90

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Hypertension pt2

50 million Americans suffer from this

-SILENT KILLER; very few, vague symptoms

-Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease

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Hypertension Risk

- age -50 and up

sodium intake
obesity
family history
physical inactivity

15

Hypertension Treatment

<1500mg/day
weight loss
exercise
1-2 glasses a day

16

Hypertension diet (Dash)

high calcium
high potassium
high fruits and veggies
high in fiber
low in fat
low in sodium

17

DASH Diet

-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

-Increase intake of fruit, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish, and low fat dairy products

-Limit intake of red meat, high fat dairy products, and lower sodium intake

18

Hypertension

70% of sodium in diet found in:
Fast food
Processed foods

Average =6,000mg

19

Current Recommendations for Sodium Intake

-Current recommendations = <2,300 mg/day

-Anyone over 51 years old, African Americans, and those that have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease should consume <1,500 mg

20

High Sodium Foods

-Foods prepared in brine(Pickels,sauerkraut,olives)

-Salted or smoked meats(bacon,sausage,delimeats)
-Salted or smoked fish(Smoked salmon,anchovies

-Most fast food and processed foods

-Condiments
-Cheese
-Canned foods

21

Iron- Most common worldwide leading nutrient diffeniccy

Most iron is in two proteins:
1. Hemoglobin: iron containing protein in Red blood cells
2. Myoglobin (muscles): carries and stores oxygen for the muscles

-Poor perganacy outcomes and imapred physical and cognitive development

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Iron Deficiency

Caused by...
-Poor iron intake
-Blood loss (ulcers)
-Pregancy =increased iron needs, growth and develpoment ,

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At-Risk Groups for Iron Deficiency

-Women of childbearing age (monthly blood loss)
-Children: high growth rate, poor intake

24

Iron Deficiency Anemia

-Small, pale, red blood cells

-Symptoms: tired, paleness, rapid heart rate

-Children: brain damage, developmental delays

-Pica- Not everyone with pica would have anmaia

25

Pica

-Regular consumption of non-food items: ice, clay, stones, cigarette butts, tire inner tubes

-Groups at-risk: children, pregnant women, those in rural areas, family history, rarely occurs in men

-Complications: intestinal blockages, bacterial infections, parasites, tooth damage

-Some women think that it relieves nausea in pregnancy

26

Difeiecncy of essential nuterient- Pica common iron deficiency

Misconceptions-uneducated

The body cannot digest (pica)
bacterial infections
blockage
parasites
damage to teeth.

27

IRON RDA

Men =10 mg/day

Women=15mg/day

28

Iron Toxicity

High levels hard to excrete

#1 cause of fatal poisoning in children <3 years of age(often form supplement)

29

Heme Iron

-A form that is better absorbed (meat)
-FOUND IN MEAT

30

Non-Heme Iron

-Plant Iron: not absorbed as well as heme iron

-Beans, cereal, dried fruit, nuts

31

Factors that Affect Iron Absorption

-Fiber can decrease iron absorption

-Vitamin C can increase iron absorption (tomato sauce with meat)

32

Calcium

-The most abundant mineral in the body

-99% stored in bones and teeth

-1% of blood is used for:
a. Muscle contraction, nerve impulse, blood clotting
b. If low blood levels, calcium is taken from the bones.

The skeleton serves as a bank from which the blood can borrow and return calcium as needed

33

Bone Formation

-Bone cells:
a. OsteoClasts:(Chew) cells that break down bone
b. OsteoBlasts: cells that build bone

-Remodeling: bones continually breaking down and rebuilding throughout lifetime

34

Bone Formation

Children Osteoblasts> Osteoclast
Building Bone
Age 30 peak bone mass achieved

Age 30-40 Osteoblast=Osteoclast

Maintaining bone mass in the 30s and 40s
>45: Osteoclasts> Osteoblasts

35

Osteoporosis

-By age 70, you can lose 30-40% of your bone mass

-1/4 women develop Osteoporosis

-1/8 men develop osteoporosis

36

Osteoporosis fractures

-SILENT DISEASE until fractures occur

-Excessive bone loss
---Increased risk of fractures
---Common fracture sites: wrist, spine (Dowager's hump), hip

37

Bone Health Assessment: DXA

-Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
-20-30 minute whole body scan

-DXA measurement generates T score:

---Normal bone density is 0 to -1 T score

---Low bone mineral density is -1 to -2.4 T score

---Osteoporosis is -2.5 or lower T score

38

Osteoporosis Risk Factors

-Females have less bone density

Menopause/Males: lower estrogen = lower calcium absorption

-Alcohol intake: increases calcium excretion

-Poor vitamin D status

--Genetics

-Underweight: carrying extra weight can help to build stronger bones


-High protein intake

-High phosphorus intake

-High sodium intake


39

Prevention of Osteoporosis

-Adequate calcium and Vitamin D intake

-Weight-bearing exercise: walking, lifting weights, etc.

-No smoking

-Moderate alcohol intake

-Treatment: medications that inhibit osteoclast activities
---Side effects: ulcers, swallowing difficulties

40

Calcium Sources

-Milk and dairy products
-Kale, broccoli, bok choy
-Fortified products: OJ, waffles, cereal
-Beans