Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (141):
What did the navy act of 1794 allow for?
Allows the government to purchase or construct six frigates; the purpose of this is to send a message that we will not tolerate these attacks.
In what year did Tripoli declare war on the US?
How many British vessels did the Baltimore Clippers either sink or capture ?
The first national US government was
The articles of confederation
If they shipped was US build and you are screwed it paid a per entry of___ per ton.
If I ship was US built in foreign crude he paid a per ton entry of
After Jefferson becomes president what did we once again do?
Sold most of the Navy and fire most of the Navy officers.
What was the number one source of income for countries in northern Africa?
What country stopped attacking our ships after we passed the Navy act of 1794?
What is an embargo?
Close ports, no trade
Who went to make a deal for the purchase of New Orleans from Napoleon, and how did it go?
James Monroe and Livingston. They were told not to pay more than $10 million. Napoleon offered the entire Louisiana purchase for $15 million and we jumped on it
When and where was the last time a confederation was attempted?
Argentina in the 1870s
What unforgivable offense did a British warship inflict upon the US in 1811?
It went into a New York Harbor and impressed in entire merchant vessel with the crew.
What was the ship of preference for smugglers, and why?
Baltimore clippers because they were small very fast ships, in the European ships couldn’t catch him.
What to prominent figures were beheaded during the French Revolution?
Louis the 16th, and Marie Antoinette
Approximately how many of the American Mariners who were impressed and the British Navy were actually British
One in 10
What type of ship was the Clermont?
A hybrid steam/sailship
Under the Constitution, Congress is required to
Have and maintain a navy
What is a tariff?
A tax on imports
The Essex case of 1800 was when an American neutral vessel running cargo was caught and let go by the British admiralty prison much to everyone’s surprise because it was ruled a
Name three countries in northern Africa who are engaged in Barbary pirating.
Morocco, Algeria, and Libya
In 1805 two of the greatest battles in naval history occurred. What were they?
Trafalgar and Austerlitz
Who is the father of the mechanical merchant marine?
What was England’s three steps in their SOP
Issue blockades, define contraband at their discretion, and allow colonial trade by treaty only.
When did New York City burn, and who ordered this done?
1783, King George
What is a nutriccain?
A hurricane that heads out to sea.
When did the Baltimore Clippers begin development
1795, and were built until 1815
When was the first steam engine invented, and by whom?
1775, James Watt
When did Congress defy Jefferson and pull the embargo?
When did fitch receive his patent?
We went to Spain for help in______ Add negotiated a treaty for a $10,000 bribe to_________.
What happened to Napoleon’s plan for taking over Haiti?
It didn’t work. His troops suffered tropical fevers and the slaves who had uprised successfully fought back
What was a paper blockade
And imaginary blockade where you’re told where they blockaded area was without they’re actually being ships there
In 1793 who was found guilty of treason and beheaded
Louis the 16th
Thomas Jefferson won over John Adams by
Publicly calling him out for not going to war with France
The battle of Trafalgar was when the French Navy was on R&R thinking they were safe, and a British fleet commanded by_____ _______ broadside of the French, who didn’t have a prayer. Their big ships of the line literally sank keel in the mud.
When did Madison ask Congress to declare war?
June 1, 1812
The French pass laws to counter the orders in council, allowing French merchant ships to
Privateer an attack neutral ships
During the articles of Confederation, the United States had our own flag, government, but had no_______, and were still economically dependent upon_________.
What were the Baltimore Clippers the basis for?
The more modern clippers such as the California and Texas
Who won the election of 1808, and what did they outlaw?
James Madison, he outlawed intercourse (clean up business)
What happened when Johnjay presented the treaty to the Confederation?
They argued back-and-forth, could not agree on anything; meanwhile Gardoqui keeps asking Jay what the status was, and without an answer Gardoqui pull the treaty.
What big market did the merchant Marines seek in the Baltic?
Amber, depending on the quality could be very valuable.
In 1810 Madison passed Macon’s bill number two. What did that mean?
It meant that if France or England stopped violating our neutrality we would trade with you and not the other nation.
“If there were no Algerians, it would be worthwhile for England to build one.”
In what years was the quasi-naval war?
1798 to 1800
What was the third market?
Sumatra (Indonesia), peppercorns was the biggest product.
One incentive for goods to be moved by American ship was a___ Reduction on US tariff rates.
Who did Washington order in 1795 to negotiate with Spain for commercial trade?
What was the piece of Amiens?
In agreement and 1801 for France England and Spain to stop fighting, which lasted about 18 months.
When was the Claremont built?
In 1807. Fulton build the whole around the engine, August 1807 launch is from Greenwich city New York in Headz up river to Livingstons ancestral home, Claremont
Who was Jean Lafitte?
Privateer for Mexico and Brazil, based himself out of Galveston and established the Republic of Campeche.
We were illegally smuggling good through Canada.
England signs the____ treaty in ____.
Well the peace of Amiens was going on what did Napoleon do?
He sent a fleet of 60,000 Premier Army troops to Santa Domingo (Haiti)
What was the only saving grace of the war of 1812
The merchant Marines.
What happened to the Baltimore clippers after the war of 1812?
Speed maneuverability wasn’t needed, and so they were D privatized (removed of guns)
On July 4, 1789 Washington had Congress pass a
After the battles of Trafalgar and Austerlitz, England once again rules the___, and Napoleon rules the _____.
Under the articles of Confederation, could British troops state in the United States?
How much sailing time was cut with the invention of the Clermont?
Are two big markets with China were
Ginseng root and silver coins
Where did the perseverance number two’s first run happen
From Philadelphia to Burlington New Jersey. Carried 30 paying passengers.
Spain agreed to a two part treaty which
Established a firm boundary between Spanish Florida in the United States, and Spain grants the right of deposit to New Orleans
By the end of 1807 American citizens wanted war with
England and France
Because France was trying to become a democracy, how did the rest of Europe respond?
By attacking France
In what year did we begin trading with China?
In 1807 Napoleon issued the Mican decree which said
Any ship with British license will be seized
Congress passed the Jay Treaty by a
How many parts did the Jay-gardoqui treaty consist of?
What were the Baltimore clipper used to transport?
Light cargoes i.e. flower cotton coffee and sugar.
What was the second market that we went after?
Tea and spices because they are meat preservatives, this market was in the Indian Ocean.
In what year was the United States first run in with Barbary pirates?
What does a right of deposit clause allow?
Foreign countries to come in for trade
In October 201806 Napoleon issues the Berlin decree which put the British Isles into a state of
In light of all this Washington decides to have Congress passed the
Navy act of 1794
What are five characteristics of a Baltimore clipper?
Approximately 100 feet long, sharply built, very maneuverable, had a raked Stern, and a sharp v hull. They were gaffe rigged schooners.
Who was in charge during the articles of Confederation?
No one, the 13 states and the national government had equal power
Briefly summarize the four parts of the Jay-gardoqui treaty
The United States got the right to navigate the Mississippi for one generation, (25 to 30 years), Spain agreed to sign a commercial treaty and pay with gold, and to help us with Mediterranean pirates, and that the northern part of Florida will remain Spanish
Approximately how many US Mariners were impressed into the British Navy?
When was the Louisiana purchase?
What did the right of deposit to New Orleans allow for?
Trade down the Mississippi River, and opens up Ohio and the Mississippi Valley to settlement, and opens brown water trading to the merchant Marines.
And January 1798 the new government in France issues what 2 decrees?
That every vessel found at sea coming from England along with the crew will be declared prize goods; and the XYZ affair
What is a broken voyage?
Non-contraband American goods hauled by American ships
What are the four parts of the Jay Treaty?
England has to evacuate America, agrees to establish boundaries, signs a limited commercial treaty where American ships can trade unlimited in the East Indies without restrictions, and agreed to pay for ships they illegally prized in the past determined by English Admiralty Court.
The empress of China was captain by one of the most famous merchant Marine captain ever, _____ ________.
During the articles of Confederation, what did the US Army and Navy consist of?
The army was 84 strong, in the Navy was sold to the highest bidders.
The Essex case of 1800 gave_____ ________ controlled by Britain in the American economy_____ ___ overnight.
False prosperity;goes up
What happens to the US trade in light of all these paper blockades and decrees?
The US literally can’t trade anywhere legally
Why did Jeffersons embargo fail?
Because no one needed our food stuff, British policy was fall back goods they got food stuff from South America, and the third and main reason was that thousands of American flag ships went foreign.
What chief diplomat saw potential problems with England and Spain?
What two reasons did we want a brown water merchant marine?
United States as a nation of rivers, and after the war of 1812 steamboat mania up again.
In 1796 George Washington passed
An act for the protection and relief of American seamen
What was the case where an American cargo ship engaged in broken voyage was captured by England and ruled a continuous voyage?
Polly case of 1805
The quasi-naval war ends with the
Convention of 1800
Frustrated with the XYZ affair, President John Adams brings______ _________ Out of retirement to lead the American army.
What was the first year profit of the Claremont?
What did Barbary pirates primarily target?
What happened with the failure of the treaty?
The merchant Marines took the reins and set out to find markets of their own.
Who was henry Knox?
The secretary of war
In the first year how many American vessels were captured by France?
How did Jefferson rack to the knowledge of Napoleon’s secret treaty?
He sent Napoleon a letter threatening that the US will break neutrality and join Britain to attack you if you come to New Orleans
Upon returning to New York City John green turned a___ Profit of________
In what year did congress finally get forced to make a navy?
What were we trading in return for with the ginseng root and silver coins?
Tea spices silk cloth and chinaware
To help prevent France and England kidnapping US merchant mariners, George Washington issues
Certifications of citizenship
Why did the monarchies in Europe want the US to fail?
Because democracy threatens the monarchy
If A ship is foreign built and foreign crewed it had to pay a per ton entry of
On February 22, 1784 the_______ __ ______ Left New York City for China and return on May 11, 1785.
Empress of China
What did we gain in the convention of 1800?
They got us out of the old French treaty of 1778, and the French decree of 1798, and France promised from 1800 on they will respect international rules of neutrality
How did the perseverance one operate?
Buy a set of orders that rotate around
In the articles of Confederation, how did legislation pass?
By a 2/3 vote
Where did ginseng grow wild?
What was San ildefouse?
The secret treaty that Napoleon signed in which he acquired Louisiana from Spain.
In May 201806 the British admiralty redeclares France into a state of
When did congress finally vote to declare war and what was the outcome?
June 17, 1812, the house voted 81 to 49. In the Senate voted 19 to 13
Because of all the British impressment of US merchant Marines, George Washington send as chief justice of the Supreme Court____ ___ to convince the British to stop
Johnjay, impressing our Mariners illegally, stop the ridiculous contraband laws, and paper blockades.
What was the ship that was built by Livingston in Fulton?
Why did the Jay-Gardoqui treaty not pass?
Because the articles of Confederation were shit and nothing ever passed.
How fast did Fitch claim the perseverance two could travel?
7 to 8 kts
How much was captured by the merchant Marines in the war of 1812?
Over $40 million
Every commercial treaty has a right of
During the articles of confederation what was required when the legislation have anything to do with tax?
A 3/4 vote
What was one of the most embarrassing incidents in American naval history?
The Chesapeake being seized by the HMS leopard in front of US citizens on the beach
No legislation was ever passed because
The requirement of a 2/3, or 3/4 vote was too much, and they could never agree that much.
Who was Toussaint L Ouverture?
A slave who led a slave uprising in Haiti while the French revolution was going on.
In what year did we ratify the constitution?
What happened on June 2, 1790?
Fitch builds the perseverance 2. It was more advanced and had paddles for propulsion at the Stern.
What two things did Jefferson believe that we needed instead of a navy?
Gunboats, and stationary fortifications
How did the French revolution affect the United States
Algiers starts attacking or ships, capture to US flag ships, and British maritime policy announces that all neutrals in war can no longer carry food stuff to the Caribbean.
In 1796 US signed their second_____ ______ In which we paid $35,000 and built a frigate for them.
When and where was the perseverance is first run?
1788 on the Delaware river.
What was John Fitch his first major accomplishment?
He married James watts steam engine to a ships hull on August 2, 1785. It was named the perseverance
Because we had no treaty with Spain at the time, settling farmers could not
Transport crops down the Mississippi River
How much did it cost Livingston in Fulton to build their ships?
How far was the Clermont’s voyage?
110 miles, took 24 hours
The battle of Austerlitz was a
Land battle where Napoleon beat the combined armies of Russia and Austria
Who is the inventor that Livingston met while negotiating the treaty?
Upon trying to get a treaty with Algeria, what did the Algerians say to us?
“We are more expensive than morocco”
John Adams was the first sitting president to
Lose an election