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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (141):
1

What did the navy act of 1794 allow for?

Allows the government to purchase or construct six frigates; the purpose of this is to send a message that we will not tolerate these attacks.

2

In what year did Tripoli declare war on the US?

1801

3

How many British vessels did the Baltimore Clippers either sink or capture ?

Over 500

4

The first national US government was

The articles of confederation

5

If they shipped was US build and you are screwed it paid a per entry of___ per ton.

Six cents

6

If I ship was US built in foreign crude he paid a per ton entry of

$.30

7

After Jefferson becomes president what did we once again do?

Sold most of the Navy and fire most of the Navy officers.

8

What was the number one source of income for countries in northern Africa?

Barbary pirating

9

What country stopped attacking our ships after we passed the Navy act of 1794?

Algiers

10

What is an embargo?

Close ports, no trade

11

Who went to make a deal for the purchase of New Orleans from Napoleon, and how did it go?

James Monroe and Livingston. They were told not to pay more than $10 million. Napoleon offered the entire Louisiana purchase for $15 million and we jumped on it

12

When and where was the last time a confederation was attempted?

Argentina in the 1870s

13

What unforgivable offense did a British warship inflict upon the US in 1811?

It went into a New York Harbor and impressed in entire merchant vessel with the crew.

14

What was the ship of preference for smugglers, and why?

Baltimore clippers because they were small very fast ships, in the European ships couldn’t catch him.

15

What to prominent figures were beheaded during the French Revolution?

Louis the 16th, and Marie Antoinette

16

Approximately how many of the American Mariners who were impressed and the British Navy were actually British

One in 10

17

What type of ship was the Clermont?

A hybrid steam/sailship

18

Under the Constitution, Congress is required to

Have and maintain a navy

19

What is a tariff?

A tax on imports

20

The Essex case of 1800 was when an American neutral vessel running cargo was caught and let go by the British admiralty prison much to everyone’s surprise because it was ruled a

Broken voyage

21

Name three countries in northern Africa who are engaged in Barbary pirating.

Morocco, Algeria, and Libya

22

In 1805 two of the greatest battles in naval history occurred. What were they?

Trafalgar and Austerlitz

23

Who is the father of the mechanical merchant marine?

John Fitch

24

What was England’s three steps in their SOP

Issue blockades, define contraband at their discretion, and allow colonial trade by treaty only.

25

When did New York City burn, and who ordered this done?

1783, King George

26

What is a nutriccain?

A hurricane that heads out to sea.

27

When did the Baltimore Clippers begin development

1795, and were built until 1815

28

When was the first steam engine invented, and by whom?

1775, James Watt

29

When did Congress defy Jefferson and pull the embargo?

1809

30

When did fitch receive his patent?

August 1794

31

We went to Spain for help in______ Add negotiated a treaty for a $10,000 bribe to_________.

1786; morocco

32

What happened to Napoleon’s plan for taking over Haiti?

It didn’t work. His troops suffered tropical fevers and the slaves who had uprised successfully fought back

33

What was a paper blockade

And imaginary blockade where you’re told where they blockaded area was without they’re actually being ships there

34

In 1793 who was found guilty of treason and beheaded

Louis the 16th

35

Thomas Jefferson won over John Adams by

Publicly calling him out for not going to war with France

36

The battle of Trafalgar was when the French Navy was on R&R thinking they were safe, and a British fleet commanded by_____ _______ broadside of the French, who didn’t have a prayer. Their big ships of the line literally sank keel in the mud.

Horatio Nelson

37

When did Madison ask Congress to declare war?

June 1, 1812

38

The French pass laws to counter the orders in council, allowing French merchant ships to

Privateer an attack neutral ships

39

During the articles of Confederation, the United States had our own flag, government, but had no_______, and were still economically dependent upon_________.

Money; England

40

What were the Baltimore Clippers the basis for?

The more modern clippers such as the California and Texas

41

Who won the election of 1808, and what did they outlaw?

James Madison, he outlawed intercourse (clean up business)

42

What happened when Johnjay presented the treaty to the Confederation?

They argued back-and-forth, could not agree on anything; meanwhile Gardoqui keeps asking Jay what the status was, and without an answer Gardoqui pull the treaty.

43

What big market did the merchant Marines seek in the Baltic?

Amber, depending on the quality could be very valuable.

44

In 1810 Madison passed Macon’s bill number two. What did that mean?

It meant that if France or England stopped violating our neutrality we would trade with you and not the other nation.

45

“If there were no Algerians, it would be worthwhile for England to build one.”

Benjamin Franklin

46

In what years was the quasi-naval war?

1798 to 1800

47

What was the third market?

Sumatra (Indonesia), peppercorns was the biggest product.

48

One incentive for goods to be moved by American ship was a___ Reduction on US tariff rates.

10%

49

Who did Washington order in 1795 to negotiate with Spain for commercial trade?

Thomas Pinckney

50

What was the piece of Amiens?

In agreement and 1801 for France England and Spain to stop fighting, which lasted about 18 months.

51

When was the Claremont built?

In 1807. Fulton build the whole around the engine, August 1807 launch is from Greenwich city New York in Headz up river to Livingstons ancestral home, Claremont

52

Who was Jean Lafitte?

Privateer for Mexico and Brazil, based himself out of Galveston and established the Republic of Campeche.

53

We were illegally smuggling good through Canada.

True

54

England signs the____ treaty in ____.

Jay; 1796

55

Well the peace of Amiens was going on what did Napoleon do?

He sent a fleet of 60,000 Premier Army troops to Santa Domingo (Haiti)

56

What was the only saving grace of the war of 1812

The merchant Marines.

57

What happened to the Baltimore clippers after the war of 1812?

Speed maneuverability wasn’t needed, and so they were D privatized (removed of guns)

58

On July 4, 1789 Washington had Congress pass a

Tariff

59

After the battles of Trafalgar and Austerlitz, England once again rules the___, and Napoleon rules the _____.

Sea; land

60

Under the articles of Confederation, could British troops state in the United States?

No

61

How much sailing time was cut with the invention of the Clermont?

50%

62

Are two big markets with China were

Ginseng root and silver coins

63

Where did the perseverance number two’s first run happen

From Philadelphia to Burlington New Jersey. Carried 30 paying passengers.

64

Spain agreed to a two part treaty which

Established a firm boundary between Spanish Florida in the United States, and Spain grants the right of deposit to New Orleans

65

By the end of 1807 American citizens wanted war with

England and France

66

Because France was trying to become a democracy, how did the rest of Europe respond?

By attacking France

67

In what year did we begin trading with China?

1789

68

In 1807 Napoleon issued the Mican decree which said

Any ship with British license will be seized

69

Congress passed the Jay Treaty by a

2/3 majority

70

How many parts did the Jay-gardoqui treaty consist of?

Four

71

What were the Baltimore clipper used to transport?

Light cargoes i.e. flower cotton coffee and sugar.

72

What was the second market that we went after?

Tea and spices because they are meat preservatives, this market was in the Indian Ocean.

73

In what year was the United States first run in with Barbary pirates?

1784

74

What does a right of deposit clause allow?

Foreign countries to come in for trade

75

In October 201806 Napoleon issues the Berlin decree which put the British Isles into a state of

Paper blockade

76

In light of all this Washington decides to have Congress passed the

Navy act of 1794

77

What are five characteristics of a Baltimore clipper?

Approximately 100 feet long, sharply built, very maneuverable, had a raked Stern, and a sharp v hull. They were gaffe rigged schooners.

78

Who was in charge during the articles of Confederation?

No one, the 13 states and the national government had equal power

79

Briefly summarize the four parts of the Jay-gardoqui treaty

The United States got the right to navigate the Mississippi for one generation, (25 to 30 years), Spain agreed to sign a commercial treaty and pay with gold, and to help us with Mediterranean pirates, and that the northern part of Florida will remain Spanish

80

Approximately how many US Mariners were impressed into the British Navy?

20,000

81

When was the Louisiana purchase?

1803

82

What did the right of deposit to New Orleans allow for?

Trade down the Mississippi River, and opens up Ohio and the Mississippi Valley to settlement, and opens brown water trading to the merchant Marines.

83

And January 1798 the new government in France issues what 2 decrees?

That every vessel found at sea coming from England along with the crew will be declared prize goods; and the XYZ affair

84

What is a broken voyage?

Non-contraband American goods hauled by American ships

85

What are the four parts of the Jay Treaty?

England has to evacuate America, agrees to establish boundaries, signs a limited commercial treaty where American ships can trade unlimited in the East Indies without restrictions, and agreed to pay for ships they illegally prized in the past determined by English Admiralty Court.

86

The empress of China was captain by one of the most famous merchant Marine captain ever, _____ ________.

John Greene

87

During the articles of Confederation, what did the US Army and Navy consist of?

The army was 84 strong, in the Navy was sold to the highest bidders.

88

The Essex case of 1800 gave_____ ________ controlled by Britain in the American economy_____ ___ overnight.

False prosperity;goes up

89

What happens to the US trade in light of all these paper blockades and decrees?

The US literally can’t trade anywhere legally

90

Why did Jeffersons embargo fail?

Because no one needed our food stuff, British policy was fall back goods they got food stuff from South America, and the third and main reason was that thousands of American flag ships went foreign.

91

What chief diplomat saw potential problems with England and Spain?

John Jay

92

What two reasons did we want a brown water merchant marine?

United States as a nation of rivers, and after the war of 1812 steamboat mania up again.

93

In 1796 George Washington passed

An act for the protection and relief of American seamen

94

What was the case where an American cargo ship engaged in broken voyage was captured by England and ruled a continuous voyage?

Polly case of 1805

95

The quasi-naval war ends with the

Convention of 1800

96

Frustrated with the XYZ affair, President John Adams brings______ _________ Out of retirement to lead the American army.

George Washington

97

What was the first year profit of the Claremont?

5%

98

What did Barbary pirates primarily target?

Merchant vessels

99

What happened with the failure of the treaty?

The merchant Marines took the reins and set out to find markets of their own.

100

Who was henry Knox?

The secretary of war

101

In the first year how many American vessels were captured by France?

Over 300

102

How did Jefferson rack to the knowledge of Napoleon’s secret treaty?

He sent Napoleon a letter threatening that the US will break neutrality and join Britain to attack you if you come to New Orleans

103

Upon returning to New York City John green turned a___ Profit of________

25%; $30,000

104

In what year did congress finally get forced to make a navy?

1793

105

What were we trading in return for with the ginseng root and silver coins?

Tea spices silk cloth and chinaware

106

To help prevent France and England kidnapping US merchant mariners, George Washington issues

Certifications of citizenship

107

Why did the monarchies in Europe want the US to fail?

Because democracy threatens the monarchy

108

If A ship is foreign built and foreign crewed it had to pay a per ton entry of

$.50

109

On February 22, 1784 the_______ __ ______ Left New York City for China and return on May 11, 1785.

Empress of China

110

What did we gain in the convention of 1800?

They got us out of the old French treaty of 1778, and the French decree of 1798, and France promised from 1800 on they will respect international rules of neutrality

111

How did the perseverance one operate?

Buy a set of orders that rotate around

112

In the articles of Confederation, how did legislation pass?

By a 2/3 vote

113

Where did ginseng grow wild?

New England

114

What was San ildefouse?

The secret treaty that Napoleon signed in which he acquired Louisiana from Spain.

115

In May 201806 the British admiralty redeclares France into a state of

Paper blockade

116

When did congress finally vote to declare war and what was the outcome?

June 17, 1812, the house voted 81 to 49. In the Senate voted 19 to 13

117

Because of all the British impressment of US merchant Marines, George Washington send as chief justice of the Supreme Court____ ___ to convince the British to stop

Johnjay, impressing our Mariners illegally, stop the ridiculous contraband laws, and paper blockades.

118

What was the ship that was built by Livingston in Fulton?

The Clermont

119

Why did the Jay-Gardoqui treaty not pass?

Because the articles of Confederation were shit and nothing ever passed.

120

How fast did Fitch claim the perseverance two could travel?

7 to 8 kts

121

How much was captured by the merchant Marines in the war of 1812?

Over $40 million

122

Every commercial treaty has a right of

Deposit clause

123

During the articles of confederation what was required when the legislation have anything to do with tax?

A 3/4 vote

124

What was one of the most embarrassing incidents in American naval history?

The Chesapeake being seized by the HMS leopard in front of US citizens on the beach

125

No legislation was ever passed because

The requirement of a 2/3, or 3/4 vote was too much, and they could never agree that much.

126

Who was Toussaint L Ouverture?

A slave who led a slave uprising in Haiti while the French revolution was going on.

127

In what year did we ratify the constitution?

1789

128

What happened on June 2, 1790?

Fitch builds the perseverance 2. It was more advanced and had paddles for propulsion at the Stern.

129

What two things did Jefferson believe that we needed instead of a navy?

Gunboats, and stationary fortifications

130

How did the French revolution affect the United States

Algiers starts attacking or ships, capture to US flag ships, and British maritime policy announces that all neutrals in war can no longer carry food stuff to the Caribbean.

131

In 1796 US signed their second_____ ______ In which we paid $35,000 and built a frigate for them.

Barbary treaty

132

When and where was the perseverance is first run?

1788 on the Delaware river.

133

What was John Fitch his first major accomplishment?

He married James watts steam engine to a ships hull on August 2, 1785. It was named the perseverance

134

Because we had no treaty with Spain at the time, settling farmers could not

Transport crops down the Mississippi River

135

How much did it cost Livingston in Fulton to build their ships?

$5000

136

How far was the Clermont’s voyage?

110 miles, took 24 hours

137

The battle of Austerlitz was a

Land battle where Napoleon beat the combined armies of Russia and Austria

138

Who is the inventor that Livingston met while negotiating the treaty?

Robert Fulton

139

Upon trying to get a treaty with Algeria, what did the Algerians say to us?

“We are more expensive than morocco”

140

John Adams was the first sitting president to

Lose an election

141

And what year was the French revolution?

1794