Final Flashcards Preview

Hist 242 > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (94):
1

Who is regarded as the world’s greatest naval strategist and merchant marine strategist?

Alfred Thayer Mahan

2

Who became impressed by an article written by Mayhan?

Admiral Steven b Luce

3

When and where did Congress fund the Naval war College?

1884 in Newport Rhode Island

4

In what year was Mayhan assigned as one of the faculty at the Naval war College?

1885

5

Mayhan became president of the Naval war College in the year

1886

6

What two books did Mayhan publish beginning in 1890?

Influence of Sea power upon history, 1660–17 83. Pub, 1892
Influence of Sea power upon the French Revolution and empire1793-1812

7

What are the three requirements of a great sea power?

Navy, merchant Marine, and great manufacturing all working together building, transporting, and protecting.

8

What did Mayhan published in 1897?

The interest of America in Seapower, present and future

9

Who wrote “Moby dick”?

Herman Melville

10

What playwright wrote “bound east of Cardiff“?

Eugene O’Neill

11

Who wrote “heart of darkness”, and “the secret sharer”?

Joseph Conrad

12

While on a voyage from new England to the west coast in the 1840s Richard H Dana wrote

Two years before the mast

13

What was the first chapter from “two years before the mast” about?

A cook who backtalk and officer, and the captain beat him and confined him to solitary in the bottom of the ship, and he returned in sane.

14

In what year was flogging outlawed in the Navy?

1850

15

Congress outlawed corporal punishment on American merchant vessels in the year

1898

16

What were American flag ships refer to during the post-Civil War.?

Hell ships

17

A belaying pin, which allowed for a figure 8 while hoisting sales, was also used to

Beat the crew

18

A form of punishment by which a man’s wrists were iron up and hoisted up until his toes barely touched the deck was known as

Tricing up

19

What were some other forms of punishment?

Broken arms, legs, ribs, some where skinned alive with deck scrapers

20

A shipping master who demanded a crew at any cost, who’s basic idea was to keep seamen broke was known as a

Crimp

21

What is a “chit”?

Tab

22

Sailors being caught in a cycle of spending all their money while in port and then jumping back aboard ship or been shanghaied was the concept of

Debt peonage

23

What was the shipping commissioner act of 1872?

A weak attempt by the federal government to stop shanghaiing to where only sober men could sign their shipping articles

24

What did the dingley act of 1884 do?

Abolished the advanced wage, and prohibited allotments to anyone except a sailors wife or blood relative

25

All this bad shit that was going on to sailors eventually lead to what?

The birth of unions

26

What was the first long lasting union?

The marine fireman boiler water tender, 1883

27

What was the second union that formed?

Coast Seamens union, 1885

28

What union formed in 1886?

Offshore Bluewater west coast deck department

29

What union was created in 1891 and still going today?

Sailors union of the Pacific

30

National seamens union

Chicago, 1892

31

In 1895 the NSU changed to the

International seaman’s union

32

Who was the first marathon leader that took over the east and gulf coast unions?

Andrew Furuseth

33

Furuseth was born in

Ramedal norway, 1854

34

Furuseth declines his family business and set sail at the age of 19 on the

Bark Marie

35

Furuseth helped found what union?

CSU

36

Furuseth was elected
of the CSU in

Secretary
1887

37

The highest position at the CSU was

Secretary

38

How long was Furuseth career?

10 yrs
Only on sail ships, no steam

39

What were furuseths 2 goal in dc in 1895

To improve legal status of all Mariners under American flag, and improve economics of merchant mariners.

40

What was the Maguire act of 1895?

Abolished crimp allotment, abolished imprisonment for desertion on coastwise trip.

41

What was the case where for sailors jumped ship while on the West Coast heading to Chile?

Arago case 1897

42

What was Robertson versus Baldwin, 1897?

Second Dred Scott decision. Supreme Court ruled that from the earliest sailing period, a sailors personal liberty for the life of the contract was never intended to apply to their contract. No 13th amendment for sailors at that time.

43

What ended corporal punishment on American flag ships?

White act of 1898

44

What else did the white act accomplish?

Limited to one month salary and the amount of an allotment by crimps. Outlawed imprisonment for deserting on a cost wise voyage. Lessened punishment for desertion in foreign ports to one months pay.

45

What senator from Wisconsin did Furuseth befriend?

Robert LaFollette

46

What passed in 1915 that the effects of are still profound to this day?

LaFollette’s Seamens bill

47

According to LaFollettes bill, what percentage onboard must have A/B license, and what percentage had to understand orders of officers?

65%
75%

48

Birthing space increased

2/3 from 72 ft.³ to 120 ft.³

49

What were some other advantages of the bill of 1915?

Required hospital and lavatory spaces, increase Manning scale of crew and passengers one to one, no allotments on foreign and coastal crimps. Desertion only result in a loss of money, no imprisonment.

50

What was the main reason the bill of 1915 past?

Ship safety. Americans and Europeans were traumatized after the sinking of the Titanic in 1912

51

Who was opposed to the passing of the bill of 1915?

The Great Lakes shipping interest

52

Why was President Wilson reluctant to sign the bill of 1915?

Because he knew he would lose votes on the next election, but he knew was the only chance to get something done for the merchant Marine

53

During the period of 1870 to 1910 national wealth was up by

600%

54

1870 to 1910 How much was railroad mileage, iron ore, and coal production up by?

400%, 600%, 1000%

55

1870 to 1910 American flag trade was at

50%

56

When was Woodrow Wilson elected to presidency?

1912

57

“Without a great merchant Marine, we cannot take our place in the world”

Mahan

58

Where are we in World War I in 1913?

No, we were neutral

59

Pre-1914 an A/B made

A dollar a day

60

1914 A/B

30/day

61

1916 A/B

45/day

62

1918 A/B

75/day

63

1919 A/B

85/day

64

1921 A/B

72.50/day

65

1922 A/B

55/day

66

1930s A/B

1/day

67

What year did we join World War I?

April 1917

68

What did Wilson get Congress to pass in 1916?

World shipping act

69

What did the world shipping act do?

Encourage a naval auxiliary and naval reserve. Developed an organized trading program with routes set up. Outlaw economic discrimination by foreign shipping companies

70

What was the emergency fleet corporation?

In case of war, the government takes control of the merchant Marine

71

What happened the day after we join World War I?

The EFC confiscated every vessel over 2500 tons

72

How many tons of neutral vessels did the EFC lease?

Over 2 million

73

How many ships did the EFC build?

15 million tons at 2500 tons apiece

74

When did the first ships built by the EFC hit the water?

Summer of 1918

75

How many ships did the EFC launch in September 1918 at the wars end?

465,000 tons

76

What were the most famous of the ships built by the EFC?

Hogg Islanders

77

What was the most famous Hogg islander?

S.S. city of Flint

78

What occurred two hours after England declared war on Germany in World War II?

A German sub sinks a British passenger ship, the city of Flint gets there and saves passengers

79

What is the merchant marine act of 1920?

The Jones act

80

What did the Jones act do?

Returned the entire fleet including the EFC’s back to private enterprise. Provided for money for shipbuilding, sold government ships, and close the coastwise shipping to only US flag ships

81

How much did it cost to build the hog Islanders, and how much did they sell for?

200–250 per ton, $30 a ton

82

In the 20s the freight rate collapsed below

The 1914 freight rate

83

In the 1920s what were ship owners demanding?

20% pay cut for the entire crew, longer work week, and no overtime

84

What kind of a pay cut did the US shipping board rule to?

15%

85

Furuseth appealed the decision to

Warren G Harding and got shut down

86

What happened during the Maritime strike of 1921?

Companies hired 35,000 nonunion employees. The strike lasted 64 days and the unions gave up and excepted the shit pay and treatment

87

For how long after the Maritime strike of 1921 was there no union activity?

15 years

88

How many members did the ISU have before the strike and after the strike?

120,000 before, and 16,000 after

89

1934 A/B

30/month

90

1934 O/S

17.50/month

91

What was Dr Willetts dads Knick name?

1-trip blacky willet

92

Working around the clock was known as a

Field day

93

1$/month plus room and board

Work aboard

94

Wages, benefits, hours, and working conditions all negotiated through collective bargaining is known as

Bread and butter unionism