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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (151):
1

What did Livingston and Fulton do after the Clermont?

Started making technical mistakes with regards to how they built ships.

2

Did Livingston and Fulton get a monopoly on the Mississippi river?

Negative

3

Describe characteristics of the Mississippi

So big you can’t even see both sides, harsh currents, snags.

4

Who was sent to Pittsburgh Ohio to contract the production of an eastern style steamboat, and what was the Vessel’s name?

Nicholas Roosevelt; the New Orleans
1809

5

What was the construction of the New Orleans similar to?

Clermont

6

What was the objective of the New Orleans?

To go down the Ohio River to the Mississippi, and into New Orleans

7

After making the trip down to New Orleans, what happened to the New Orleans?

Heads up the Mississippi River and makes it to Natches and cannot go any farther because of too much current.

8

What were some reasons the New Orleans could not head up stream on the Mississippi

The V shaped hull was susceptible to snags, and the Watts Steamengine didn’t have enough horsepower – low pressure boiler

9

Who argued that Livingston and Fultons monopoly on the Hudson was illegal and unconstitutional?

John Stevens

10

What was the trial regarding Livingston and fultons monopoly?

Gibbons vs Ogden, 1824

11

What was the outcome of gibbons vs Ogden?

The Supreme Court ruled that all commerce on all rivers in the United States is controlled by the federal government, not the state government. Two types of cargo interstate commerce and intrastate commerce. No monopoly on river systems

12

Intrastate commerce is regulated by who?

State government

13

Who regulates interstate commerce?

Federal government

14

What were the short-term results of Gibbons versus Ogden?

Now the federal government is much stronger because of brown water regulation

15

What happened to Brownwater commerce by the early and mid-1820s?

Passes blue water commerce in value

16

The larger the river:

More rapid currents more extreme currents, snags, sandbars

17

Who was responsible for making brown water a success?

Henry Shreve

18

What was Shreves first accomplishment?

The enterprise, 1814

19

Describe the enterprise

Locomotion Is shifted to a stern wheeler, but maintain an Eastern v style hull

20

Describe the enterprises first voyage

Left Pittsburgh on 1814 to New Orleans with a load of ammo, and arrived right before the battle of New Orleans.Deemed a hero by the citizens of New Orleans and Andrew Jackson

21

What happened to Shreve in May of 1815?

Heads up the river and arrested by Edmund Livingston (Robert Livingston’s relative) he charged with violating the Livingston/Fulton monopoly.

22

After being arrested in May 1815, what was next for Shreve?

The locals post bail and he takes off. It was a rough trip, he made it to St. Louis and realized the hull was fucked, and it needs a new design

23

What was Shreves second vessel?

The Washington, 1816. 400 tons, high-pressure steam engine. Goes back to side wheelers, flat bottomed, superstructures is 2 decks. The idea is for passenger cargo.

24

Describe the events of the Washington’s first voyage.

Heads out June 1816, explodes and killed nine people. They patch the boiler and make it to New Orleans October 1816. Edmond Livingston is there and arrests Shreve again, Shreve gets bill again and hauls ass.

25

In 1819 was sued by the Livingston Fulton enterprise. What was the verdict?

Shreve is found not guilty in a New Orleans Court. The jury rules by throwing the case out by saying none of these three men or Louisiana citizens.

26

What was the third vessel Shreve built?

The George Washington, 1825. First twin engine, each sidewheel has its own boiler and engine making awesome maneuverability. Perfectly flat bottomed, in the superstructure is three decks. The third deck has luxurious passenger accommodations. The George Washington sets the standard for steamboat.

27

What does Shreve invent in 1829?

I snag boat called the Heliopolis.

28

What is a snag also called

Sawyers

29

What does a snag boat do?

As a V cut bow for catching snags and removing from the water

30

What was the great raft of 1832?

The river is just riddled with old floating tree trunks, 160 to 200 miles of solid Logs, Shreve completed it in 1839

31

How much cargo in 1816?

94,600 tons

32

How much cargo in 1826?

193,300 tons

33

Cargo in 1836?

437,000 tons

34

Cargo in 1846

971,000 tons

35

1860 cargo?

Over 2,000,000 tons

36

What is Henry Shreve known as?

The godfather of brown water shipping

37

What is the time period between 1815 in 1816 referred to as

Golden age of the US merchant Marine

38

American born in Salem Massachusetts, very poor, autodidact

Nathaniel Bowditch

39

Bowditch taught himself

Algebra calculus Latin and French

40

Why did Bowditch learn other languages?

Because he loves math and all math books were written in Latin

41

Was Bowditch an exceptional seamen?

No

42

How many actual voyages did Bowditch go on?

5

43

What did Bowditch perfect while At sea that have never been done before?

Lunar sightings to determine longitude without a chronometer

44

What book did Bowditch re-right?

The practical navigator, John Hamilton Moore. Found 8000 errors while reading it. Rewritten as the American practical navigator. 1802

45

In what years was Bowditch alive and what title was he given?

17 73–18 38; father of celestial navigation

46

As long as ships sail,

the name doctor Bowditch will be revered

47

Who was nicknamed the Pathfinder of the seas?

Matthew Fontaine Maury, 1806 to 1873

48

Describe Maurys naval career

Joined in 1825 as a deck officer. And 1833 wasn’t bad seeds fell off a ladder broke his leg. Made superintendent of the US naval observatory in Washington DC, made head of the department of charts and corrections.

49

What was Maury doing while working in the observatory?

Looking at patterns of ships logs and gathering data for helping ships navigate.

50

What are the three books Maury published?

When’s and currents of the north Atlantic, 1847; physical geography of the sea, first edition 1855; the whale chart, 1851

51

Maury was the founder of
and father of

Science of oceanography; world meteorology

52

What are the two ways to move cargo?

Transient or (tramp); regular trader

53

How long was an average tramp voyage

2 to 3 years

54

What were the main ports of a regular trader

New York to Liverpool, New York to London, New York to Louisiana

55

What did Americans invented in 1818

Packet line referred to as mail line

56

What were packet lines looking for?

Fast turnaround not full cargo

57

What was the first packet line in America

Blackball line 1818

58

Why was there four blackball line ships

One in New York leaving, one in Liverpool, other two on the way.

59

What did the blackball line ships carry

Fine cargo, wool and cotton cloth, passengers, mail contracts

60

What are steerage passengers

Poor immigrants

61

What was the second packet line

Red star Line 1822

62

Third packet line

Blue swallow tail line 1823

63

Mail hay day

1818-1838

64

Because the packet lines are all about going fast

It made for terrible working conditions

65

Liverpool rat

Ex British naval men

66

Bucko mate

Skilled mates who brutalized crews

67

1st American steam powered trans Atlantic

Ss savannah

68

Describe the Savannah’s first voyage

Left Savannah Georgia May 18 19, 29 days to cross the Atlantic, only uses the engine for 80 hours out of the 29 days.

69

What happened to the Savannah and 1821

Sank mysteriously

70

Who made the first crossing of the Atlantic under steam power

And the BRITs, the SS Sirius, 1838

71

What other British ship cross the Atlantic under steam power

The great western, arrived in New York City 12 hours after the Sirius

72

What happened in 1840

British ship Owner Samuel canard created (BANARMSPC)

73

BANARMSPC

British North American and Royal Mail steam packet company

74

USMSSC

United States mail steam ship company

75

Edward Collins

Collins line
Subsidy from congress to build 4 steam powered trans Atlantic packet ships

76

What were the names of the four ships collins built

Atlantic arctic Baltic pacific

77

Describe the ships built by Collins

Largest construction ever. 2800 tons, side lever engines amidships. Slow speed, to cut weight hulls were constructed out of wood. Very fancy, complete failures

78

Why were the Collins line failures, and how many sunk

They were too expensive to run and required a lot of maintenance. Two out of the four

79

How was the Arctic sunk?

T-boned by a small french iron hulled fishing vessel off the coast of Newfoundland

80

Why was the sinking of the arctic such as big of a deal as the titanic?

No compartmentalization, open hull design, almost all die including the captain, not enough lifeboats

81

Describe the sinking of the Pacific

On voyage from the north coast of Ireland to London and just disappeared. Still to this day no one knows. No bodies or wreckage ever discovered.

82

What natural resources were we marketing in the Pacific Ocean

Seal pelts and otter Pelts

83

Mas a fuera

Over there

84

Where did we harvest seal pelts?

Falkland island
S Georgia island
Staten Island
Patagonian coast
Easter island
Pitcairn island

85

How many seal pelts per trip

50000

86

Seal profitable till

1805

87

Mas a fuera renamed

Alejandro Selkirk

88

At Pitcairn island we also found

Survivors from the mutiny on the bounty

89

In 1787 the Columbia and the lady Washington discover

Pungent sound and millions of otters

90

Who commanded the Columbia and lady Washington?

Captain Robert gray

91

Special about Columbia and lady Washington?

1st merchant ships to circumnavigate the globe

92

Hawaii aka

Sandwich island

93

Market from Hawaii

Sandel wood oil

94

What did John Jacob Astor do?

1811 establishes Astoria and set up pacific fur company

95

What happened to Astoria in 1814

Brit warships buy it and rename fort George

96

What was spermacetti used for

Perfumes

97

What was whale bone and rib cartilage used for

Umbrellas and corsets

98

Whaling vessels went from

Coast of Peru, Hawaii, Japan, gulf of Alaska, Kamchatka, Bering strait

99

Who hunts whales today?

Iceland and Japan

100

Confederate raiders sunk

60% of union whaling ships

101

California connection

1846-47

102

Who captured California

John Sloan and Robert Stockton

103

Gold rush started

1848 sutters mill

104

How many ships first arrived in San Francisco

775

105

How many vessels were abandoned in frisco harbor

Over 300

106

What ship was like the Baltimore clippers

Griffiths rainbow

107

Who was the most famous builder of clippers

David McKay

108

Greatest sailing ship ever built

McKay’s great republic
4555 tons largest wooden clipper

109

Sailing era died in

1857

110

By the eve of our civil war our merchant marine is

The best

111

Why does our merchant marine come down

Got lazy, no innovation

112

1855 foreign trade

72%

113

1860 foreign trade

66%

114

End of war 1865 foreign trade

42%

115

Easiest explanation for our merchant downfall

Blame confederate raiders and navy

116

How many did raiders sink

239

117

Northern shipyards were

Building warships not merchant ships

118

1st steam iron clad warship

Monitor

119

1st argument for expanding merchant marine

Fed govt tax structure to favor shipyard and owners. Rebates for imported steel (curved hulls from England)

120

Second argument for expanding m marine

Allow America merchant to admit foreign built vessels to American registry

121

Third argument for m marine expansion

Fed govt to subsidize m marine
Dock rates harbor rates and increase mail contracts

122

Two areas we were #1 in post civil war

1-transportation of guano

123

Guano from

Chincha islands 1866-1879

124

Guano used for

Fertilizer and nitrates for gunpowder

125

Guano ends with

War of pacific
Chile vs Peru and Bolivia

126

Colliers

Ships that transport coal

127

What exposes our shit shit merchant marine?

Spanish American war 1898

128

Us pacific fleet commanded by

Gen George Dewey

129

How did we win the Spanish American war

Because they were more fucked up than we were

130

Who was president gibbons vs Ogden 1824

James monroe

131

President 1809-1817

James Madison

132

President 1817-1825

James Monroe

133

President 1825-1829

John Quincy Adams

134

President 1829-1837

Andrew Jackson

135

President 1837-1841

Martin van buren

136

President 1841-1841

William Henry Harrison

137

President 1841-1845

John Tyler

138

President 1849-1850

Zachary Taylor

139

President 1850-1853

Millard Fillmore

140

President 1853-1857

Franklin pierce

141

President 1857-61

James Buchanan

142

President 1861-65

Lincoln

143

President 1865-69

Andrew Johnson

144

President 1869-77

Grant

145

President 1877-81

Hayes

146

President 1881-81

James Garfield

147

President 1881-85

Chester Arthur

148

President 1885-89

Grover Cleveland

149

President 1889-93

Benjamin Harrison

150

President 1893-97

Grover Cleveland

151

President 1897-1901

William McKinley