Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (151):
What did Livingston and Fulton do after the Clermont?
Started making technical mistakes with regards to how they built ships.
Did Livingston and Fulton get a monopoly on the Mississippi river?
Describe characteristics of the Mississippi
So big you can’t even see both sides, harsh currents, snags.
Who was sent to Pittsburgh Ohio to contract the production of an eastern style steamboat, and what was the Vessel’s name?
Nicholas Roosevelt; the New Orleans
What was the construction of the New Orleans similar to?
What was the objective of the New Orleans?
To go down the Ohio River to the Mississippi, and into New Orleans
After making the trip down to New Orleans, what happened to the New Orleans?
Heads up the Mississippi River and makes it to Natches and cannot go any farther because of too much current.
What were some reasons the New Orleans could not head up stream on the Mississippi
The V shaped hull was susceptible to snags, and the Watts Steamengine didn’t have enough horsepower – low pressure boiler
Who argued that Livingston and Fultons monopoly on the Hudson was illegal and unconstitutional?
What was the trial regarding Livingston and fultons monopoly?
Gibbons vs Ogden, 1824
What was the outcome of gibbons vs Ogden?
The Supreme Court ruled that all commerce on all rivers in the United States is controlled by the federal government, not the state government. Two types of cargo interstate commerce and intrastate commerce. No monopoly on river systems
Intrastate commerce is regulated by who?
Who regulates interstate commerce?
What were the short-term results of Gibbons versus Ogden?
Now the federal government is much stronger because of brown water regulation
What happened to Brownwater commerce by the early and mid-1820s?
Passes blue water commerce in value
The larger the river:
More rapid currents more extreme currents, snags, sandbars
Who was responsible for making brown water a success?
What was Shreves first accomplishment?
The enterprise, 1814
Describe the enterprise
Locomotion Is shifted to a stern wheeler, but maintain an Eastern v style hull
Describe the enterprises first voyage
Left Pittsburgh on 1814 to New Orleans with a load of ammo, and arrived right before the battle of New Orleans.Deemed a hero by the citizens of New Orleans and Andrew Jackson
What happened to Shreve in May of 1815?
Heads up the river and arrested by Edmund Livingston (Robert Livingston’s relative) he charged with violating the Livingston/Fulton monopoly.
After being arrested in May 1815, what was next for Shreve?
The locals post bail and he takes off. It was a rough trip, he made it to St. Louis and realized the hull was fucked, and it needs a new design
What was Shreves second vessel?
The Washington, 1816. 400 tons, high-pressure steam engine. Goes back to side wheelers, flat bottomed, superstructures is 2 decks. The idea is for passenger cargo.
Describe the events of the Washington’s first voyage.
Heads out June 1816, explodes and killed nine people. They patch the boiler and make it to New Orleans October 1816. Edmond Livingston is there and arrests Shreve again, Shreve gets bill again and hauls ass.
In 1819 was sued by the Livingston Fulton enterprise. What was the verdict?
Shreve is found not guilty in a New Orleans Court. The jury rules by throwing the case out by saying none of these three men or Louisiana citizens.
What was the third vessel Shreve built?
The George Washington, 1825. First twin engine, each sidewheel has its own boiler and engine making awesome maneuverability. Perfectly flat bottomed, in the superstructure is three decks. The third deck has luxurious passenger accommodations. The George Washington sets the standard for steamboat.
What does Shreve invent in 1829?
I snag boat called the Heliopolis.
What is a snag also called
What does a snag boat do?
As a V cut bow for catching snags and removing from the water
What was the great raft of 1832?
The river is just riddled with old floating tree trunks, 160 to 200 miles of solid Logs, Shreve completed it in 1839
How much cargo in 1816?
How much cargo in 1826?
Cargo in 1836?
Cargo in 1846
Over 2,000,000 tons
What is Henry Shreve known as?
The godfather of brown water shipping
What is the time period between 1815 in 1816 referred to as
Golden age of the US merchant Marine
American born in Salem Massachusetts, very poor, autodidact
Bowditch taught himself
Algebra calculus Latin and French
Why did Bowditch learn other languages?
Because he loves math and all math books were written in Latin
Was Bowditch an exceptional seamen?
How many actual voyages did Bowditch go on?
What did Bowditch perfect while At sea that have never been done before?
Lunar sightings to determine longitude without a chronometer
What book did Bowditch re-right?
The practical navigator, John Hamilton Moore. Found 8000 errors while reading it. Rewritten as the American practical navigator. 1802
In what years was Bowditch alive and what title was he given?
17 73–18 38; father of celestial navigation
As long as ships sail,
the name doctor Bowditch will be revered
Who was nicknamed the Pathfinder of the seas?
Matthew Fontaine Maury, 1806 to 1873
Describe Maurys naval career
Joined in 1825 as a deck officer. And 1833 wasn’t bad seeds fell off a ladder broke his leg. Made superintendent of the US naval observatory in Washington DC, made head of the department of charts and corrections.
What was Maury doing while working in the observatory?
Looking at patterns of ships logs and gathering data for helping ships navigate.
What are the three books Maury published?
When’s and currents of the north Atlantic, 1847; physical geography of the sea, first edition 1855; the whale chart, 1851
Maury was the founder of
and father of
Science of oceanography; world meteorology
What are the two ways to move cargo?
Transient or (tramp); regular trader
How long was an average tramp voyage
2 to 3 years
What were the main ports of a regular trader
New York to Liverpool, New York to London, New York to Louisiana
What did Americans invented in 1818
Packet line referred to as mail line
What were packet lines looking for?
Fast turnaround not full cargo
What was the first packet line in America
Blackball line 1818
Why was there four blackball line ships
One in New York leaving, one in Liverpool, other two on the way.
What did the blackball line ships carry
Fine cargo, wool and cotton cloth, passengers, mail contracts
What are steerage passengers
What was the second packet line
Red star Line 1822
Third packet line
Blue swallow tail line 1823
Mail hay day
Because the packet lines are all about going fast
It made for terrible working conditions
Ex British naval men
Skilled mates who brutalized crews
1st American steam powered trans Atlantic
Describe the Savannah’s first voyage
Left Savannah Georgia May 18 19, 29 days to cross the Atlantic, only uses the engine for 80 hours out of the 29 days.
What happened to the Savannah and 1821
Who made the first crossing of the Atlantic under steam power
And the BRITs, the SS Sirius, 1838
What other British ship cross the Atlantic under steam power
The great western, arrived in New York City 12 hours after the Sirius
What happened in 1840
British ship Owner Samuel canard created (BANARMSPC)
British North American and Royal Mail steam packet company
United States mail steam ship company
Subsidy from congress to build 4 steam powered trans Atlantic packet ships
What were the names of the four ships collins built
Atlantic arctic Baltic pacific
Describe the ships built by Collins
Largest construction ever. 2800 tons, side lever engines amidships. Slow speed, to cut weight hulls were constructed out of wood. Very fancy, complete failures
Why were the Collins line failures, and how many sunk
They were too expensive to run and required a lot of maintenance. Two out of the four
How was the Arctic sunk?
T-boned by a small french iron hulled fishing vessel off the coast of Newfoundland
Why was the sinking of the arctic such as big of a deal as the titanic?
No compartmentalization, open hull design, almost all die including the captain, not enough lifeboats
Describe the sinking of the Pacific
On voyage from the north coast of Ireland to London and just disappeared. Still to this day no one knows. No bodies or wreckage ever discovered.
What natural resources were we marketing in the Pacific Ocean
Seal pelts and otter Pelts
Mas a fuera
Where did we harvest seal pelts?
S Georgia island
How many seal pelts per trip
Seal profitable till
Mas a fuera renamed
At Pitcairn island we also found
Survivors from the mutiny on the bounty
In 1787 the Columbia and the lady Washington discover
Pungent sound and millions of otters
Who commanded the Columbia and lady Washington?
Captain Robert gray
Special about Columbia and lady Washington?
1st merchant ships to circumnavigate the globe
Market from Hawaii
Sandel wood oil
What did John Jacob Astor do?
1811 establishes Astoria and set up pacific fur company
What happened to Astoria in 1814
Brit warships buy it and rename fort George
What was spermacetti used for
What was whale bone and rib cartilage used for
Umbrellas and corsets
Whaling vessels went from
Coast of Peru, Hawaii, Japan, gulf of Alaska, Kamchatka, Bering strait
Who hunts whales today?
Iceland and Japan
Confederate raiders sunk
60% of union whaling ships
Who captured California
John Sloan and Robert Stockton
Gold rush started
1848 sutters mill
How many ships first arrived in San Francisco
How many vessels were abandoned in frisco harbor
What ship was like the Baltimore clippers
Who was the most famous builder of clippers
Greatest sailing ship ever built
McKay’s great republic
4555 tons largest wooden clipper
Sailing era died in
By the eve of our civil war our merchant marine is
Why does our merchant marine come down
Got lazy, no innovation
1855 foreign trade
1860 foreign trade
End of war 1865 foreign trade
Easiest explanation for our merchant downfall
Blame confederate raiders and navy
How many did raiders sink
Northern shipyards were
Building warships not merchant ships
1st steam iron clad warship
1st argument for expanding merchant marine
Fed govt tax structure to favor shipyard and owners. Rebates for imported steel (curved hulls from England)
Second argument for expanding m marine
Allow America merchant to admit foreign built vessels to American registry
Third argument for m marine expansion
Fed govt to subsidize m marine
Dock rates harbor rates and increase mail contracts
Two areas we were #1 in post civil war
1-transportation of guano
Chincha islands 1866-1879
Guano used for
Fertilizer and nitrates for gunpowder
Guano ends with
War of pacific
Chile vs Peru and Bolivia
Ships that transport coal
What exposes our shit shit merchant marine?
Spanish American war 1898
Us pacific fleet commanded by
Gen George Dewey
How did we win the Spanish American war
Because they were more fucked up than we were
Who was president gibbons vs Ogden 1824
John Quincy Adams
Martin van buren
William Henry Harrison