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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (261)
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1

What is lumbarization?

When S1 (sacral bone) doesn't fuse with S2, and as a results there are 6 lumbar vertebrates. *mobile spine*

2

What is sacralization?

When one of the lumbar vertebrates (L5), fuse to S1 & as a result, there are only 5 lumbar bones. *causes a stiff spine*

3

What are lordosis?

A concavity or hollow in the spine. Found in the cervical & lumbar vertebrates.
*found posterior to spine*
In the cervical spine, it is concave posterior, but convex anteriorly.
*BOWS IN*

4

What is Kyphosis?

A convex spine
Convex posteriorly & concave anteriorly.
In the thoracic & sacral, coccygeal segments.
*POKES OUT*

5

There is ____ relationship between posture and pain

NO

6

Body of the vertebrae

The weight bearing surface. *Anterior Part*

7

The vertebral arch is

Composed of the pedicles, the laminae, & the projections

8

The vertebral foramen is

Space created by the body & the vertebral arch

9

The vertebral canal...

contains spinal cord & its coverings. Created by successive vertebral foramina

10

Spinous process is...

Extension posterior from the meeting of the lamina

11

The lamina is...

the junction between the pedicle & the spinous process

12

The pedicle is...

the junction between the vertebral body & the vertebral arch

13

The transverse process is...

Lateral projection originating at the junction of the lamina & pedicle

14

The superior articular process is...

2 superior projections from the superior portion of the lamina which form synovial joint (facet) with vertebra directly above

15

The inferior articular process is...

2 inferior projection from the inferior portion of the portion of the lamina which form synovial facet joints with the vertebra directly below

16

The superior vertebral notch is...

Made by the pedicle & the superior articular process

17

The inferior vertebral notch is...

made by the pedicle & the inferior articular process

18

The intervertebral foramen is...

space created by superior & inferior vertebral notches

19

Characteristics of the cervical spine

- Extreme mobility
- Complex series of joints
- Different function of the intervertebral(low bearing structure), and the Zygopophyseal joint (facilitators of movement)
- Vertebral artery
- 7 vertebrae & 8 nerve roots
- Close approximation to the shoulder

20

Characteristics of the thoracic spine

- Transitional zone between cervical (C) & lumbar (L)
- 2nd least mobile of the spinal region.
- Ribcage & low ratio of intervertebral disk (IVD)
- Anterior- posterior & transverse dimensions are almost equal
- Height of body is slightly higher posteriorly. (contributes to normal kyphosis)
- Each body has paired costal demi-facets. Posteriorally (one superiorly & one inferiorly), except T10, T11, &T12. Have single facets, because the 3 false ribs don't attach to the IVD
- Pedicles protrude directly posterior

21

What is the least mobile region of the vertebrae

Pelvic girdle: sacral

22

What is the rule of threes?

The amount the spinous process projects posteriorly and inferiorly

23

T1-T3 spinous process projects...

posteriorly at the same level as the vertebral body

24

T4-T7 spinous process projects...

posteriorly at half a level below the vertebral body.

25

T7-T9 spinous process projects...

posteriorly at a whole level below the vertebral body. At the same level of the vertebral body of T8-T10

26

T10 spinous process projects...

a whole level below

27

T11 spinous process projects...

half a level below

28

T12 spinous process projects...

at the same level

29

Characteristics of the lumbar spine

- Heavy bodies for weight bearing
- Stout transverse processes
- 3/4 of superior and inferior surface of body covered by cartilage end-plate

30

Characteristics of the sacrum

- 5 fused vertebrae
- Base: superior facets of S1 articulates with inferior facet of L5
- 4 sacral foramina, translate nerves S1-S4 (anterior-sacral foramina)
- Apex of the sacrum is below & base is above (same for the coccyx)