Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (261)
What is lumbarization?
When S1 (sacral bone) doesn't fuse with S2, and as a results there are 6 lumbar vertebrates. *mobile spine*
What is sacralization?
When one of the lumbar vertebrates (L5), fuse to S1 & as a result, there are only 5 lumbar bones. *causes a stiff spine*
What are lordosis?
A concavity or hollow in the spine. Found in the cervical & lumbar vertebrates.
*found posterior to spine*
In the cervical spine, it is concave posterior, but convex anteriorly.
What is Kyphosis?
A convex spine
Convex posteriorly & concave anteriorly.
In the thoracic & sacral, coccygeal segments.
There is ____ relationship between posture and pain
Body of the vertebrae
The weight bearing surface. *Anterior Part*
The vertebral arch is
Composed of the pedicles, the laminae, & the projections
The vertebral foramen is
Space created by the body & the vertebral arch
The vertebral canal...
contains spinal cord & its coverings. Created by successive vertebral foramina
Spinous process is...
Extension posterior from the meeting of the lamina
The lamina is...
the junction between the pedicle & the spinous process
The pedicle is...
the junction between the vertebral body & the vertebral arch
The transverse process is...
Lateral projection originating at the junction of the lamina & pedicle
The superior articular process is...
2 superior projections from the superior portion of the lamina which form synovial joint (facet) with vertebra directly above
The inferior articular process is...
2 inferior projection from the inferior portion of the portion of the lamina which form synovial facet joints with the vertebra directly below
The superior vertebral notch is...
Made by the pedicle & the superior articular process
The inferior vertebral notch is...
made by the pedicle & the inferior articular process
The intervertebral foramen is...
space created by superior & inferior vertebral notches
Characteristics of the cervical spine
- Extreme mobility
- Complex series of joints
- Different function of the intervertebral(low bearing structure), and the Zygopophyseal joint (facilitators of movement)
- Vertebral artery
- 7 vertebrae & 8 nerve roots
- Close approximation to the shoulder
Characteristics of the thoracic spine
- Transitional zone between cervical (C) & lumbar (L)
- 2nd least mobile of the spinal region.
- Ribcage & low ratio of intervertebral disk (IVD)
- Anterior- posterior & transverse dimensions are almost equal
- Height of body is slightly higher posteriorly. (contributes to normal kyphosis)
- Each body has paired costal demi-facets. Posteriorally (one superiorly & one inferiorly), except T10, T11, &T12. Have single facets, because the 3 false ribs don't attach to the IVD
- Pedicles protrude directly posterior
What is the least mobile region of the vertebrae
Pelvic girdle: sacral
What is the rule of threes?
The amount the spinous process projects posteriorly and inferiorly
T1-T3 spinous process projects...
posteriorly at the same level as the vertebral body
T4-T7 spinous process projects...
posteriorly at half a level below the vertebral body.
T7-T9 spinous process projects...
posteriorly at a whole level below the vertebral body. At the same level of the vertebral body of T8-T10
T10 spinous process projects...
a whole level below
T11 spinous process projects...
half a level below
T12 spinous process projects...
at the same level
Characteristics of the lumbar spine
- Heavy bodies for weight bearing
- Stout transverse processes
- 3/4 of superior and inferior surface of body covered by cartilage end-plate