Flashcards in Exam 2 anterior chest Deck (50):
Name two most frequent sites for venipuncture
Median cubital and basilic veins
How is the breast arranged?
Each breast is made of 15-20 lobes further divided into lobules. These secrete into lactiferous duct and then into sinus
What holds up the breast?
What other glands are present in the nipple?
How is the breast supplied with blood?
Lateral thoracic artery (branch of axillary), intercostal arteries, internal thoracic artery
What is the lymphatic drainage of the breast?
abdominal lymph nodes (subdiaphragmatic), Anterior group of axillary nodes,
apical axillary nodes
Where does the cephalic vein pass through to connect with the axillary vein?
Deltopectoral triangle to join axillary vein
How is the deltoid muscle innervated?
Where does the pectoralis major insert?
Lateral to the intertubercular sulcus
What innervates the pectoralis major?
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
What innervates the pectoralis minor?
medial pectoral nerve
What is the origin of the thoracoacromial artery
what muscle defines the three anatomic parts of the axillary artery?
pectoralis minor upon its insertion to the coracoid process
What ligaments support the sternoclavicular joint?
Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments
What is unique about the sternoclavicular joint?
an articular disc divides it into two cavities of synovial fluid
What are the two different breast surgeries for breast cancer?
Radical mastectomy and lumpectomy
What is the ligament that connects the clavicle and the first rib?
What kind of joint is found between the Xiphisternal junction (Junction between Xiphoid process and sternum body)?
Syndesmosis that turns into a synostosis
What are the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process?
1. Pectoralis minor
3. Short head of the biceps brachii
The infraglenoid tubercle is the attachment site for?
Triceps (long head)
Where does the subscapular muscle attaches?
To the lesser tubercle of the Humerus.
The intertubercular groove hold the tendon of what?
The long head of the biceps brachii that was attached proximally to the supraglenoid tubercle.
What is the major blood supply to the breast and is a branch of the axillary artery (often is larger in women that have nursed)?
Lateral Thoracic Artery
What lead from the nipple to the secretory units of the breast?
The lactiferous ducts
Where does lymph from the lower parts of the breast flow?
(inferior medial) Flows to the subdiaphragmatic abdominal nodes.
where does lymph flow in the superior part of the breast?
apical axillary nodes.
**However, one should note that the majority of lymph will flow to the anterior or pectoral lymph nodes
Where does lymph flow from the medial side of the gland?
parasternal nodes of the ipsilateral side, but may also cross over to contralateral parasternal nodes
What is the pathway of the cephalic vein?
The cephalic vein begins as tributaries from the hand and passes rostrally on the lateral side of the forearm and arm. It passes between the deltoid and pectoralis major to the deltopectoral triangle where is passes deep to connect with the axillary vein.
What is the origin of the Deltoid?
The deltoid muscle takes origin from the spine of the scapula, the acromion and the lateral third of the clavicle.
What is the innervation of the platysma muscle?
Facial (CN VII)
Where does the Lateral Pectoral Nerve come from?
The Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus
Where does the medial pectoral nerve come from?
The Medial Cord of the Brachial Plexus
What becomes the suspensory ligament?
Which of the following muscles attaches to the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula?
F.Triceps (long head)
Which of the following muscles attaches to the superior and lateral aspect of the Greater Tubercle of the Humerus?
The thoracoacromial artery is a branch of what blood vessel?
A. Axillary artery
B. Subclavian artery
C. Suprascapular artery
D. Transverse cervical artery
Name the artery that comes off the first part of the axillary artery
Superior thoracic artery
Name the two arteries that come off the second region of the axillary artery
Thoracoacromial, Lateral thoracic
Name the three arteries that come off the third part of the axillary artery
Subscapular (branches into scapular circumflex and thoracodorsal), posterior circumflex humeral, anterior circumflex humeral
Name the major terminal branches of the brachial plexus
Musculocutaneous, Median, Axillary, Radial, Ulnar
Where does the brachial plexus originate from?
Ventral rami of cervical nerves C5-C8, T1
What does an injury to the upper brachial plexus (C5, C6) result in?
adducted arm, medial rotation of arm, extended elbow (Water's tip)
What does an injury to the lower brachial plexus (C8, T1) result in?
Weakness and atrophy in the hand, Loss of intrinsic hand movements (Claw hand)
Name the ligaments that attach the clavicle to the scapula
Acromioclavicular ligament, Coracoclavicular ligament
What two main nerves supply the flexors of the arm/forearm?
Median and musculocutaneous, Brachioradialis is an exception (radialis)
What kind of muscle does the radial nerve supply?
Extensors, except brachioradialis (which is a flexor)
What muscles medially rotate the arm?
subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, trees major, pectoralis major, anterior deltoid
What muscles laterally rotate the arm?
infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid
what muscles are involved in flexion of the upper arm?
Deltoid, pect major, biceps brachii, corichobrachialis