Exam 2 (Chapters 5, 6, & 7) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 (Chapters 5, 6, & 7) Deck (46)
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1

What are the components of the information processing model in order?

Encoding, storage, retrieval

2

A very high rate of responding is produced by what schedule of reinforcement?

variable ratio

3

What are the important concepts in operant conditioning?

- end result is an increase in the rate of an already occurring response
- responses are voluntary, emitted by the organism
- consequences are important in forming an association
- reinforcement should be immediate
- an expectancy develops for reinforcement to follow a correct response

4

What are the schedules of reinforcement?

fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, and variable ratio

5

punishment

an event or stimulus that, when following a response, causes that response to be less likely to happen again

6

punishment by application

occurs when something unpleasant (such as spanking, scolding, or other unpleasant stimulus) is added to the situation or applied

7

punishment by removal

behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs

8

continuous reinforcement

a reinforcer for each and every correct response

9

partial reinforcement effect

a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses will be more resistant to extinction

10

shaping

small steps toward some ultimate goal are reinforced until the goal itself is reached

11

neurofeedback

involves trying to change brain activity

12

biofeedback

the traditional term used to describe this kind of biological feedback of information, and through its use many problems can be relieved or controlled

13

learning

any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice

14

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

original, naturally occurring stimulus that ordinary leads to an involuntary response

15

three processes of memory

encoding, storage, and retrieval

16

recall

few or no external cues required

17

formal concepts

defined by specific rules or features

18

natural concepts

form as a result of real-world experience (fuzziness)

19

prototype

example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept

20

problem solving

cognition used to reach goal by thinking/behaving in certain ways

21

concept

idea that represents category of objects, events, or activities

22

mental images

picture-like representations of objects and events

23

thinking

mental activity for organizing, understanding, and communicating

24

heuristic

guess based on experience ("rule of thumb")

25

algorithms

specific steps for solving certain problems

26

insight

the sudden perception of a solution to a problem ("Aha!" moment)

27

mental set

persist in using past problem-solving patterns

28

functional fixedness

thinking about only most typical functions of objects

29

confirmation bias

search for evidence that fits beliefs while ignoring evidence not fitting beliefs

30

creativity

solving problems by combining ideas or behaviors in new ways