Final exam (Chapters 13, 14, 15 and some review) Flashcards Preview

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1

Psychopathology:

The study of abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

2

biological model

Disordered behavior and thinking are caused by biological changes
in the chemical, structural, or genetic
systems of the body.

3

Cognitive perspective

Maladaptive functioning comes from irrational beliefs and illogical patterns of thought.

4

Biopsychosocial model

Disordered thinking or behavior is the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences.

5

Psychodynamic model

Abnormal thinking and behavior stem from repressed conflicts and urges that are fighting to become conscious.

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Behaviorism

Abnormal behavior is learned.

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Cultural relativity:

Need to consider norms and customs of another culture when diagnosing person from that culture with a disorder
- Cultural syndromes

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Sociocultural perspective:

Abnormal/normal thinking or behavior is product of behavioral shaping within context of:
- Family influences
- Social group to which one belongs
- Culture within which family and social group exist

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

- First published in 1952
- Revised multiple times as knowledge and ways of thinking about psychological disorders has changed.
- Most recent edition published in 2013, the DSM-5

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Phobia:

Irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity

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Social anxiety disorder (social phobia):

Fear of negative evaluation in social situations

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Specific phobias:

Fear of particular objects, situations, or events

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Agoraphobia:

Fear of place/situation from which escape is difficult or impossible

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Panic disorder:

Frequent, disruptive panic attacks

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Panic attack:

Sudden, intense panic; multiple physical and emotional symptoms

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

- Feelings of dread/doom and physical stress lasting at least six months
- Source of anxiety often cannot be pinpointed
- Worry about things most people would not worry about

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

- With DSM-5, this disorder is no longer classified as an anxiety disorder.
- Now falls in the category of “Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders.”
- Obsessive, recurring thoughts create anxiety.
- Compulsive, ritualistic, repetitive behavior or mental acts reduce that anxiety.

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Acute stress disorder (ASD)


Occur immediately after a traumic event

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Posttraumatic stress disorder:

Symptoms include persistent ASD lasting longer than a month or can emerge as late as six months after trauma

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Acute stress disorder (ASD)
and
Posttraumatic stress disorder

Both disorders are no longer classified as anxiety disorders in the DSM-5

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Causes of Anxiety Disorders
- Psychodynamic:

Repressed urges and desires trying to come into consciousness, create anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior or thinking

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Causes of Anxiety Disorders
- Behavioral

Disordered behavior learned through operant and classical conditioning techniques

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Causes of Anxiety Disorders
- Cognitive

Excessive anxiety comes from illogical, irrational thought processes

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Causes of Anxiety Disorders
- Biological

Nervous system dysfunction, genetic transmission

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Bipolar and Related Disorders and Depressive Disorders

Affect: An emotional reaction
Disorders of mood: Disturbances in emotion ranging from mild to moderate, or can be extreme

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Major Depressive Disorder:

Severe depression, sudden, no apparent external cause
Most common of the diagnosed disorders of mood
1.5 to 3 times more likely in women as it is in men

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Bipolar I Disorder:

Mood spans from normal to manic, with or without episodes of depression

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Bipolar II Disorder:

Normal mood with episodes of major depression and episodes of hypomania

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Bipolar Disorder and ADHD

Possible connection between ADHD and adolescent onset of bipolar disorder.
Significantly higher rates of ADHD among relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder.
Irrational thinking and mania are common in bipolar not present in ADHD.
Hyperactivity can be present in both disorders.

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Causes of Disordered Mood
- Behavioral

Link depression to learned helplessness