Exam 3 (Chapters 8, 9, 12) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 (Chapters 8, 9, 12) Deck (74)
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1

1. The five stages of dying postulated by Kubler-Ross is?

- Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

2

11. The observation that people often seek stimulation and that not all motives are aroused by internal states contradicts the theory of motivation

Drive-reduction

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2. The most obvious change ushering in adolescence is?

The Growth Spurt

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3. According to Erikson’s theory, the stage of development occurs in old age?

Integrity versus despair

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4. Most young adolescents are at the level of thinking which Piaget described as?

Concrete operational

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5. In what stage does object permeance happen?

Preoperational

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6. Motivation refers to that which

energizes the behavior of an organism and directs the behavior of an organism

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7. The concept that a person acts in a certain manner because of an innate predisposition to do so is based on the theory

Instinct

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8. Which of the following does NOT support drive-reduction theory?

Going jogging when you are bored

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9. An example of intrinsic motivation is reading a textbook because:

you enjoy reading it

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10. It is believed that the hypothalamus controls

long-term mechanisms of body weight

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human development

the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death

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social psychology

the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior influence and are influenced by social groups

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conformity

changing one's own behavior to match that of other people

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social influence

process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an indicidual

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Groupthink:

Occurs when a decision-making group feels that it is more important to maintain group unanimity and cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically

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Group polarization:

Tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion

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Social impairment:

Negative influence of others on performance

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Social loafing:

When a lazy person works in a group, that person often performs less well than if the person were working alone

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Social facilitation:

Positive influence of others on performance

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Attitude:

Tendency to respond positively or negatively toward certain people, ideas, objects, or situations

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Components of Attitudes:

Behavior
Affect
Cognition

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Persuasion:

Attempt to change another’s attitude via argument, explanation, etc.

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Cognitive dissonance:

Discomfort arising when one’s thoughts and behaviors do not correspond

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Lessening cognitive dissonance:

Change the conflicting behavior
Change the conflicting attitude
Form a new attitude to justify the behavior

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Stereotype:

Set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category

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Social categorization:

Automatic unconscious assignment of a new acquaintance to some category or group

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Impression formation:

Forming of first knowledge about another person
Influenced by primacy effect
Part of social cognition

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Implicit personality theories

are sets of assumptions that people have about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are all related and form in childhood.

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Attribution:

Process of explaining the behavior of others as well as one’s own behavior