Flashcards in Exam 2 - DNA Deck (73):
__________ first person to isolate and describe the material that we now call DNA from pus cells of surgical patients
(T/F) Meischer found that DNA contained phosphorus and nitrogen in a “unique” ratio like proteins
ratio, yes. but not like proteins
Which of the ff is false about Meischer's findings about DNA?
a. speculated that the material functioned in the storage of phosphorus
b. Named the extracted material “nuclein”
c. detected it in yeast, liver, kidney, and nucleated blood cells
d. nature of the precipitate was similar to some known
it's unlike any other proteins
_______ demonstrated that DNA is the carrier of genetic information using bacterial transformation of pneumococcal cells
Credited for the discovery of DNA
a. R. Franklin
b. Hershey and Chase
which of the ff is false about Griffith's experiments on DNA?
a. bacteria exist in two formsthat differed in the nature of their capsules and virulence
b. the S-form is the lethal form
c. the S-form is the nonlethal form
d. the R-form is the nonlethal form
S = lethal!
(T/F) according to Griffith's experiments, the S-form can be transformed into the R-form
R to S (nonlethal to lethal)
(T/F) according to Griffith's experiment, when the heat killed S-form is injected into mouse, it caused the transformation of the live R-form
Coinjection of heat killed
S and live R forms were lethal
Which of the following is false about Avery, McCarty and Macleod's findings on DNA?
a. reported that the “transforming principle or substance” was DNA
b. DNA was not destroyed by proteases, lipases or ribonuclease
c. DNA is precipitated by alcohol, like carbohydrates
d. DNA is high in molecular weight
not like carbs!
_____ scientist that worked on Diplococcus pneumoniae at Rockefeller Institute
________ deterimined the determine composition of
the genetic material of bacteriophage using the blender experiment
Hershey and Chase
(T/F) bacteriophage replicate by injecting their DNA into bacteria
(T/F) In Hershey and Chase's experiments on bacteriophage, they found that 32P labeled DNA was found in the cells and 35S labeled proteins in the external phage coats were found in the supernatant
which is false about Hershey and Chase's experiments?
a. Nucleic acids minimally contain sulfur
b. phage DNA labeled bacteria produced progeny phage
c. radioactive phosphorus (32 P) labels nucleic acid
d. radioactive sulfur ( 35 S) which labels proteins
DNA has no sulfur!
_______ described the double helix structure
Watson and Crick
_______ studied DNA structure using x-ray diffraction
R. Franklin and M. Wilkins
_______ found that the four DNA bases occurred in varying proportions in
DNA’s of different organisms but number of A’s = T’s and number of G’s = C’s
______ and ____ methods used by Chargaff to separate the bases and measure their amounts
paper chromatography and spectophotometry
which of the ff does not apply to nucleic acids (DNA) structure?
a. RNA is not a polymer
b. DNA subunits are monomeric nucleotides
c. nucleotides have nitrogenous base and phosphate group
d. nucleotides have five carbon sugar group
RNA and DNA are nucleic acid polymers!
(T/F) Nucleosides consist of only the nitrogenous base covalently linked to the
(T/F) Nucleic acids are monomers with nucleotide subunits
(T/F) nucleotide subunits or DNA have a nitrogenous base, phosphate group and sugar vs RNA that has a nitrogenous base and sugar only
DNA and RNA have nitrogenous base, phosphate group and five carbon sugar group
which of the ff is not part of a nitrogenous group in DNA?
uracil only found in RNA
which of the ff is not part of a nitrogenous group in RNA?
thymine only found in DNA
which of the ff is a mismatch?
a. pyrimidine - adenine
b. purine - guanine
c. cytosine - DNA and RNA
d. uracil - RNA
pyrimidine = cytosine, thymine, uracil
which of the ff is a purine?
which of the ff is a mismatch?
a. pyrimidine - uracil
b. thymine - DNA only
c. purine - guanine
d. pyrimidine - cytosine
none of the above :)
(T/F) purines adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and RNA
(T/F) pyrimidines cytosine and thymine are both found in RNA
cytosine = DNA and RNA
thymine = DNA only
(T/F) pyrimidines cytosine and uracil are both found in RNA
(T/F) RNA contains β-D-ribose, a hydroxylated 2' carbon that forms a ribonucleoside
(T/F) DNA contains β-D-deoxyribose, a hydroxylated 2' carbon that forms a deoxyribonucleoside
2' carbon NOT hydroxylated
____ a bond where a nitrogen of a base is linked to the same carbon (C-1’)
used in sugar sugar
N- glycosidic linkage or bond
_____ is made up of nucleosides in which a phosphate group is joined to the C5’hydroxyl group of a ribonucleoside
_____ nucleosides in which a phosphate group is joined to the C5’ hydroxyl group of a deoxyribonucleoside
(T/F) Nucleotides are named for the parent nucleoside with the suffix “monophosphate” added along with the number of the carbon bearing the hydroxyl
group atom to which the phosphate group is esterified
which of the ff is NOT a ribonucleotide?
there's no such thing. remember its a RIBOnucleotide!
which of the ff is NOT a deoxyribonucleotide?
this is only in ribonucleotides
_____ the nucleotide bond that is formed by the joining of phosphodiester linkages between the hydroxyl groups of the 5’ and 3’ carbon atoms of adjacent residues
(T/F) the phosphate groups of nucleotides are negatively charged
(T/F) Nucleic acids have a chemical polarity, indicated to in the DNA or RNA chain by referring to one end as
the 5’ end and the other as the 3’ end
_____ the alternating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate linkages that is constant but with differing bases
(T/F) the bases of the sugar-phosphate backbone encodes the genetic information
____ the bond between the bases that joins the complementary strands of the DNA double helix
(T/F) the polarity of the DNA strands run parallel to each other
which of the ff is not true about the structure of DNA?
a. bulkier two-ring
pyrimidine base is paired with a single-ring purine base
b. base pairing is energetically favorable
backbones are equal distance apart
bulkier two-ring = purine
single ring = pyrimidine
(T/F) three hydrogen bonds form between A and T , whereas two
hydrogen bonds form between G and C
(T/F) an unlinked -OH group is found in both 3' ends and 5' ends of the DNA strand
at 3' end= unlinked -OH at 3C sugar ring
at 5' end, free phosphate group is attached to 5'C of sugar ring
which of the ff is false about the DNA structure?
a. One complete turn of the helix spans 10 base pairs
b. a turn of the helix is 34Å
c. phosphate groups attract Na + and Mg 2+ and positively charged basic proteins
d. Empty spaces called “grooves” occur on both sides of the helix
all is true :)
(T/F) Proteins that regulate gene expression require access to the H-bonds
between base pairs in the interior of the DNA helix in order to recognize specific nucleotide sequence
specific nucleotide sequences of DNA is recognized thru info on the outside of the helix
(T/F) the outer surface of the helix presents distinctive patterns of Hbond donors and acceptors, and
hydrophobic areas for proteins to recognize in both grooves but the most bind to the minor groove
binds to the MAJOR groove, this shows significant patterns
(T/F) In major groove, each of the four base pair
arrangements projects a unique pattern of features
while in the minor groove patterns are similar for the base pairs
_____ proteins that function in gene regulation by binding specific DNA sequences on the major groove
_____ the DNA terminal that is called the recognition helix because it regulates sequence-specific binding of protein to the DNA
which is DNA conformation is found in dehydrated DNA samples, may occur in vivo or an artifact of preparation?
which is DNA conformation can occur in vivo and may be produced from B-DNA
by rotating the base pairs 180 degrees?
which is DNA conformation has a zigzag appearance when rotated?
which is DNA conformation has their base pairs tilted instead of perpendicular to helix axis ?
which is DNA conformation are right handed helixes?
A and C
which is DNA conformation is the major type found in nature?
(T/F) DNA have very regular
structure with little variation
(T/F) most DNA sequences have local irregularities that gives it greater variability, are recognized by DNA binding proteins and impt in gene regulation
_______ a classic method used in DNA sequencing
_____ developed the classic method used for DNA sequencing
Coulson and Sanger
(T/F) in the dideoxy method, the ddnTPs used lack 3’ OH and block addition of deoxyribonucleoside
triphosphates at the 3'end
which of the following is a nucleoside?
uracil - base only
ATP - a nucleotide
dNTP - deoxynucleoside
which of the ff is not a nucleotide?
adenosine is a nucleoSIDE
which of the ff is a ribonucleotide?
thymidylate is not in RNA!
which of the ff is not a deoxyribonucleotide?
no uridine in DNA
(T/F) a phosphate group can be added to the C5' hydroxyl groups of deoxyribo and ribonucleosides to form nucleotides
(T/F) a nucleotide is a nucleoside with a phosphate group added to its C2' hydroxyl group
phosphate group is added to the C5' OH group of -SIDES
which of the ff is NOT a nucleotide?
none of the above. all are nucleotides :)