Flashcards in Exam 2 - Family: Circoviridae Deck (22):
Include the genuses
Genus: Circovirus Diseases
1. Psittacine beak and feather disease virus
2. Porcine circovirus type-1 (non-pathogenic)
3. Porcine circovirus type-2 (Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome - PMWS)
Genus: Gyrovirus Diseases
Chicken infectious anemia virus
Family: Circoviridae - Properties
Small viruses, 17-22 nm, circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Virus replication occur in actively dividing cell. DNA replication occurs int he nucleus and requires cellular proteins and other components produced during the S phase of the cell cycle. Virions are very stable, resisting 60oC for 30 minutes and pH 3 to 9.
Genus: Circovirus - Properties
Has a circular single stranded ambisense DNA
Genus: Gyrovirus - Properties
Has a circular single stranded negative sense DNA. Chicken infectious anemia virus have 12 trumpet like structures that are less obvious in other circoviruses.
PMWS - Hosts
Most common in pigs at 4-6 weeks of age or 2-3 weeks post weaning
PMWS - Transmission
Fecal-oral transmission is most common. Virus is found in all secretions. Vertical transmission (transplacental infection). Fomites.
PMWS - Pathogenesis
Individual coalescing foci of granulomatous inflammation in lymphoid tissues, lungs, liver, kidney, heart and intestines.
Contain prominent "botryoid" (grape like) intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in virus infected macrophages.
PMWS - Transplacental Infection
Infection during the first and second trimesters results in fetal death and resorption or aborted fetuses with severe cardiac congestion. Infection during last trimester has minimal effects on fetuses.
PMWS - Clinical signs
Lethargy, progressive weight loss, cough, dyspnoea, slow growth, lymphadenopathy, diarrhea, skin discoloration, congenital tremors, icterus.
PMWS - Co-infection
With porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) and opportunistic bacteria may cause severe disease and more pronounced lesions.
PMWS - Vaccination - Chimeric vaccines
New generation chimeric vaccines have been developed that utilize the non-pathogenic porcine circovirus-1 (PCV-1) as a genetic backbone for expression of the immunogenic capsid protein of PCV-2.
PMWS - Vaccination - Inactivated or baculovirus-expressed vaccines
Virus like particles that include the capsid protein of PCV-2 are also available as vaccines.
PMWS - Vaccination - vaccine schedules
- Piglets are either 1 or 2 doses with the 1st dose at 3 weeks of age, and second dose 3 weeks later
- Sow vaccination - 2 and 5 weeks antepartum.
Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS)
Associated with PCV-2. Sporadic, and reported in older piglets. Findings include necrotizing skin lesions, vasculitis, and fibrinous glomerulonephritis. Hemorrhagic necrosis of the skin.
Chicken Infectious Anemia - Host
Highly contagious to young chicks (2-4 weeks of age). Older chickens more resistant to clinical disease.
Chicken Infectious Anemia - Transmission
Virus is shed in feces and feather dander. Horizontal transmission through inhalation or oral exposure. Transmitted vertically through egg. Environmentally stable virus, remains in contaminated fomites for long periods.
Chicken Infectious Anemia - Pathogenesis
Hemocytoblasts in the bone marrow, precursor T cells in the cortex of the thymus, and dividing CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the spleen. Apoptin protein of CAV virus induce apoptosis. Immunosuppression and aplastic anemia. Vulnerable to secondary bacterial and fungal infections.
Chicken Infectious Anemia - Clinical Signs
Chicks are anorectic, lethargic, depressed, reduced body weight gain, and pale. Blood may be watery and clot slowly as a result of thrombocytopenia. Subcutaneous hemorrhages and skeletal hemorrhages, pale muscles.
Chicken Infectious Anemia - Diagnosis
Examination of PCV. Low PCV, examination of blood for total erythrocytic count will reveal anemia, thrombocytopenia, blood watery and will clot slowly.