Final Exam - Rhabdoviridae Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam - Rhabdoviridae Deck (32):
1

Rhabdoviridae 4 genera with human and animal pathogens

Lyssavirus, Vesiculovirus, Ephemerovirus, Novirhabdovirus

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Lyssavirus

Can cause rabies like disease in animals and humans. Bats are potential reservoirs.

3

Vesiculovirus

Viruses of horses, cattle, swine, and humans. Some have been isolated from fish such as carp and salmonids.

4

N protein

makes up the major capsid component, the viral nucleocapsid

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P protein

is a cofactor of the viral polymerase

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M protein

an inner protein that facilitates virion budding (binds N and G proteins)

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L protein

Is an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (transcription and replication of viral RNA)

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Virions are sensitive to

UV radiation from the sun, detergent based disinfectants and iodine containing solutions are effective disinfectants. Oxidizing agents, acids, aldehydes.

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Rabies Virus

Infects all mammals. Skunks, raccoon, foxes, and wolves are reservoirs in North America. Most commonly vampire bats and silver-haired bats

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Urban Rabies Cycle

Dogs are the main reservoir. This cycle predominates in areas of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.

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Sylvatic (of wildlife)

Cycle is predominant cycle in the northern hemisphere. It can also present simultaneously with the urban cycle in some parts of the world.

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Clinical Phases of Rabies - Prodromal Phase

Aggressiveness in tame animals. Daytime activities in nocturnal animals. No fear of humans in wild animals.

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Clinical Phases of Rabies - Excitative (fury) phase

Severe agitation and aggressiveness. Bites any material. High barking sound.

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Clinical Phases of Rabies - Paralytic (dumb) phase

Inability to swallow. Excessive salivation. Hydrophobia in dogs. Complete paralysis is followed by death.

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Pathogenesis and Pathology of Rabies Virus

Virus binds to receptor for acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions.

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Diagnosis of Rabies Virus

Tissues from two locations in the brain (the brain stem and cerebellum). Performed only in reference laboratories.

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Rabies Virus - Laboratory Diagnosis

Immunochemical identification of rabies virus antigen

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Rabies Virus - Control

Vaccines are available.

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Vesiculovirus - Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV)

Infects cattle, swine and horses. Causes vesicular stomatitis. REPORTABLE/ ZOONOTIC DISEASE!

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VSV - Clinical Features

Salivation, fever are first signs in cattle and horses. Lameness is a first sign in swine. Vesicles on tongue, oral mucosa, teats, coronary bands (cattle and swine). In horses tongue lesions are most pronounced.

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VSV - Pathogenesis

Virus enters the body through mucosal or skin abrasion. Virus replicates in intraepithelium of mucosae and skin.

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VSV - Epidemiology

Virus is transmitted by biting insects such as sand flies, black flies, house flies, and mosquitoes.

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VSV - Diagnosis

Clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine and cattle (e.g., foot and mouth disease). Vesicular lesions in horses are only characteristic of VSV infection. Only reference laboratories can do diagnostic testing.

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VSV - Prevention and Control

Control or flies. Inactivated or attenuated virus vaccines have been tested but not yet available commercially.

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Novirhabdovirus

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

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Vesiculovirus

Spring viremia of carp virus. Pathogens of wild and cultured fish.

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Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus - Clinical Signs

Darkened body color, exophthalmia, hemorrhage at base of fins. Distention of abdomen due to ascites.

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Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus - Diagnosis

There is no commercial vaccine available

29

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Ephemerovirus. Not reported in north and south america.

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Bovine ephemeral fever virus - Clinical features

Seaons disease for summer and autumn, Biphasic or polyphasic fever. Immediate drop in milk production. Occasionally nasal and ocular discharges. Cessation of rumination. Constipation and abortion may occur. Infrequent diarrhea, temporary or permanent paresis.

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Bovine ephemeral fever virus - Diagnosis

Gold standard - virus isolation in mosquito cell culture or suckling mouse brain. RT-PCR. Neutralization test. Immunofluorescence of gel diffusion.

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Bovine ephemeral fever virus - Prevention

Gives long-lasting immunity. Animals born after the outbreak are susceptible to infection. Inactivated and attenuated virus vaccine is used. A recombinant baculovirus vaccine is available.