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Flashcards in Final Exam - Caliciviridae Deck (11):

Feline Calcicivirus (FCV)

Highly infectious pathogen of cats. FCV belongs to genus Vesivirus, family Caliciviridae. Clinical syndromes may range from inapparent infections to typically mild or acute oral and upper respiratory tract disease in cats. Some strains induce lameness (known as limping syndrome). More recently, highly virulent forms of the virus (FCV-VSD) have emerged, particularly in the USA, and are associated with a systemic infection that is frequently fatal.


Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Pathogenesis

Carrier, recovered, mild infected cat. Shed virus in oral, nasal and conjunctival secretions. Largely by direct contact. Routs of infection for FCV in Healthy cat. In healthy cat, FCV replicate mainly in the oral and respiratory tissues. Strains may differ in their tissue tropisms and pathogenecity. Viruseseven found infeces and urine.


FCV - Clinical Signs

Tongue ulcers (most prominent lesion), sloughing oral ulcer and rhinitis, chronic ulcerative, proliferative gingivostomatitis. Possibly an immune mediated reaction to FCV, not clear. Tongue ulcerative glossitis. Pneumonia (acute exudative followed by proliferative interstitial pneumonia).


FCV - Associated Lameness (limping syndrome)

Acute synovitis, thickening of synovial membrane and increased amount of synovial fluid in joint.


FCV - Associated Virulen Systemic Disease (FCV-VSD)

During the last decade, a severe form of FCV disease [designated as FCV-associated virulent systemic disease (FCV-VSD)) with mortality rates as high as 50% has been reported in cats. In all the reported outbreaks, vaccinated cats have been affected, suggesting that current vaccines may not protect against FCV-VSD disease.


FCV-VSD Pathology

Ulceration of tongue, gingiva, hard palate, nasal cavity, pinnae, and haired skin. Mild hyperemia to sloughing of the entire foot pad. Broncho-interstitial pneumonia and necrosis of the liver, spleen and pancreas. Infection of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular injury.


FCV-VSD Clinical Signs

Pyrexia, subcutaneous facial and limb edema, crusted lesions, ulcers, and alopecia on nose, lips and ears, around eyes and on footpads, anorexia, jaundice, alopecia, respiratory distress, epistaxis.


FCV - Vaccines

Most FCV vaccines are in combination with FHV (divalent vaccines), or with more additional antigens. Modified-live and inactivated parenteral vaccines exist, the modified-live intranasal vaccine has been discontinued in Europe, but still available in USA. In high risk situations, a third kitten vaccination at 16 weeks is recommended.


Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VES)

An acute highly infectious viral disease characterized by fever and formation of vesicles on the snout, oral mucosa, soles of the feet, the coronary band, and between the toes. In pigs, the clinical disease is indistinguishable from foot and mouth disease, vesicular disease. Chances of secondary bacterial infection.


VES - Transmission

direct contact with infected animals and ingestion of raw garbage containing infected pork scraps.


San Miguel Sea Lion Virus

Formation of vesicles in oral cavity and on flippers. Also isolated from aborted and premature sea lion pups. The virus produces a vesicular exanthema-like disease when inoculated into pigs.