Exam 2 (Slavery to the Industrial Revolution) Flashcards Preview

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  • The first time we tried to modernize the economy  
  • The goal was to have a positive balance of foreign trade in order to increase the amount of gold a country had
  • The more gold you had, the wealthier you were
  • Needed the gold to wage wars


Growth of Colonization

  • Without colonies, mercantilism will not work
  • The sponsor or mother country gets natural resources from the colony (indigo, hempe, wood, fur, crops)
  • Colony provides the raw materials and the goods
  • The taxes and the goods sold in the mother country fed the treasury for the Continental Wars


Who controlled the slave trade?

  • Portugal: Late 15th Century-1700
  • G.B. and France (1700-1715)
  • G.B. (1715-1800)


Religious Arguments for Slavery

  • "A positive good": since slavery is in the Bible and therefore blessed by God is must be good
  • God made black people that way. They are big and not smart and white people are smart so there is a balance


Economic Arguments for Slavery

  • Slavery is symbol of the Western World's quest for success
  • Without slavery, the plantations would fall and the US economy would collapse
  • Since the south did not industrialize, they kept slavery


Abolition of Slavery

  • French: 1790 during the revolution
  • Britain:
    • Int'l trade in Carribean colonies in 1807
    • Complete abolishment by 1833
  • U.S.
    • ​NYS: Complete manumission in 1817
    • Int'l trade in 1809
    • Abolishment in 1865


Indirect Causes of the French Revolution

  • French Society
  • Economic Discontent


French Society

  • There are classes and there is no moving between the classes
  • First Estate:
    • Royals and Upper Clergy who make the rules and have privledges
  • Second Estate:
    • 350,000 owned 30% of the land
    • Influences gov't, law, military, and courts
    • Nobility
  • Third Estate:
    • The common man
    • 88% of the population
    • Poor farmers are 85%
    • Artisans, lawyer, and doctor are 3%






Economic Issues and the Revolution

  • Bad harvests in the mid 1780s lead to higher bread prices
  • Grain prices go up along with rent and taxes
  • Unemployment increases
  • Women riot in the street for bread trying to feed their family. Try appealing to Marie Antoinette



Direct Cause of the French Revolution

  • Government and Economic Collapse
    • No taxes means that the treasury has no money leading to a collapse



The American Revolution and The French Revolution

  • 1789: The Bill of Rights based on Locke are passed
  • French officers fighting in the American Revolution:
    • Ideas return to France with them
    • Influence the revolution in France
    • These ideas were put into action



Estate General

  • Is called for the first time since 1614 in 1789.
    • 1st Estate: 300 delegates
    • 2nd Estate: 300 delegates
    • 3rd Estate: 600 delegates
  • The 3rd Estate does not get an equal vote and are locked out of the meetings so they do their own thing



Tennis Court Oath and National Assembly

  • They meet on the tennis courts in Versailles and name themselves the National Assembly
  • The oath states that they will not leave until there is a constitution formed and they are recognized as a national assembly
  • Their first action is to abolish traditional privledges of the nobility and clergy



The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  • Equality before the law
  • Representative government for a soverign people
  • Individual freedom


Constitutional Monarchy (1791-1793)


  • King Louis XVI swore to uphold the consitution
  • Austria and Prussia passed the Declaration of Pillnitz stating that they would intefere in France to restore Louis XVI's rule
  • When the monarchs from Austria and Prussia sent troops to try and reinstate the monarchy, the National Assemble rallied citizens
  • This led to riots toward Louis XVI who fled to the Assembly
  • Louis was imprisoned and suspended
  • The Assembly called for an elected assembly officially ending the constitutional monarchy


Robspierre and the Reign of Terror

  • Robspierre was the head of the Committee of Public Safety
  • He enforced republican beliefs through the Reign of Terror (1793-94)
  • Enemies of the nation were tried and convicted
  • This was directed at all those who opposed the revolution
  • 8% noble class
  • 25% middle class
  • 6% clergy
  • 60% peasants and laborers



The Directory (1795-1799)

  • National Legislative Assembly (bicameral)
    • Lower House: Council of 500 who initiated legislation
    • Upper House: Council of Elders who rejected or accepted legislation
  • The Directory
    • 5 men elected by the Council of Elders
    • Corrupt since they did what those who elected them wanted
  • This was all ineffective due to corruption and since the five men had to make everything work


Napoleon's Public Policy

  • Propoganda: He controls the press
    • controls the liberty limiting chaos
    • If someone criticized, they were thrown in jail
    • Agents push policies
  • Opened careers based on talent
    • Before, careers were hereditary
    • He believes anyone can become what they want to become
  • Equal under the law
    • Not equal politically but under the law



Napoleonic Code

  • This reorganizes and modifies the law
  • Equality of all male citizens before the law
  • Abolished Serfdom
  • Workers are not allowed to unionize
  • ID papers were required


Napoleonic Code and Women

  • Women acquire the nationality of their husband
  • Covered by the identity of their husband and are subservant to their husband
  • Women cannot participate in lawsuits or defend themselves
  • adultry punishable by fines and prison
  • Women cannot own businesses and a woman cannot inherit a business


Education Under Napoleon

  • University of France:
    • A council that writes curriculum and sets regulations and rules
    • France still has this system
  • Military, civil servants, administration
  • Only for boys
  • Free schooling



Economic Reform Under Napoleon

  • State funded the bulding of roads, bridges, canals and RR
  • Bank of France
    • A few bankers control the bank
    • The only band that could issue legal tender
  • pushes France into a new era
  • Controls the rent and bread prices
  • stimulates employment
  • Has goals to help France


Concordant of 1801

  • The Catholic Chruch is no longer the state religion
  • The state will now choose the clergy and pay them
  • The Church will invest Clergy with their ecclisastical power
    • invest is a ceremony to say that someone is a priest and it shows the people that you are
  • Clergy is an employee of the state
  • Consolidation of Napoleon's power loosening the Church's grip on France


Napoleon's Military Career

  • An officer at 16
  • In 1793, defeated the British at Tulome and became Brigadeer General
  • Leads the French Army in Italy and defeats the Austrians securing the conquest of Italy
  • Had most of Europe under his control
  • Secured Italy and Germany


Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

  • Invaded the country in June of 1812
  • Pressed towards Moscow, which the Russians had burned
  • After being there for 5 weeks he ordered a retreat
  • When Napoleon reached Poland, 370,000 men had died and 200,000 were taken prisoner


The Battle of Waterloo

  • Napoleon raised an army of his own after returning from exile
  • He met the British and Prussians in Waterloo
  • He was defeated by the Duke of Wellington and exiled to St. Helena where he later died


The Continental System

  • Napoleon wanted to weaken the British so he blocked all British trade between Europe and Britain
  • Although it did weaken the British economy, it also lead to economic crises all across Europe


Reasons for the Industrial Revolution

  • Agricultural Advances
  • Rapid Population Growth
  • Ability and the Will to Invest
  • Ready Markets
  • New Technologies


Origins of Industrialization: Agricultural Advances

  • Plant genetics and improved agricultural methods
    • This led to an increase in food production, which fed more people at lower prices and with less labor
  • Make bigger cattle so there is more food for less
  • Happens first in Great Britain



Origins for Industrialization: Rapid Population Growth

  • 2nd half of the 18th century
  • Bigger pool of available labor for a new factory system



Origins of Industrialization: Ability and Will to Invest

  • Britain had the capital and an effective National Bank
  • Many invested in shipping insurance to grow their wealth



Reasons for Industrialization: Raw Materials

  • Easily available supply of iron ore and coal
  • Easily transported:
    • By 1780: roads, bridges and canals
  • Cotton production is immense in Egypt and India leading to undergarments



Reasons for Industrialization: New Technology

  • Before the revolution:
    • Putting-out-system: When many people work together to create a final product
  • After the revolution:
    • Now with factories leading to more control
  • Spinning Jenny
  • Power Loom
  • Steam Engine
  • Railroads



Spinning Jenny

  • Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764
  • Allowed one worker to be able to work multiple spools at once. From 6 to 14
  • Usually worked by women



Power Loom

  • A loom is an apparatus used for making fabric using yarn or thread.
  • A mechanized loom
  • Invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1784



Watt's Steam Engine

  • Invented by James Watt
  • Used steam at a pressure just above the atmospheric pressure to drive pistons
  • 1760s



Cotton Production

  • Increased from 2.5M pounds in 1780 to 366M in 1840




  • Run on coal and steam
  • 1804: 1st RR, 10 tons of coal, 70 people, 5 mph
  • 1830: 32 miles, 50 mph
  • 1840: 2000 mi of track
  • 1850: 6000 mi of track



The Great Exhibition of 1851

  • A fair about the history of Britain and its inventions
  • A symbol of the strength and wealth of G.B.
  • Had 6 million people in 6 months



Great Britain and Industrialization

  • The first to industrialize
  • By 1850:
    • GB produces 1/2 of the worlds coal and steel
    • Others are industrializing
  • By 1900:
    • GB shares the world stage with Germany and the USA



How Britain Tried to Stifle Competition

  • Until 1825:
    • No mechanic or engineer was allowed to leave the country
    • However, in the 1790s Samuel Slaters came to the US to help Moses Brown, a leading industrialist, start a mill



Europe's Growing Population

  • Total European Population:
    • 1800: 205M
    • 1850: 274M
    • 1870: 320M


Reasons for the Population Explosion

  • Health and Life Expectancies Improve
    • A better understanding of medicine and germs
    • 1790: smallpox vaccination introduced
  • Better Nutrition: 
    • A better understanding of the body
  • Average Marriage Age Down
    • Since men and women are healthier at a young age, the babies are healthier
    • By 1850, the economy is good enough for the Western World to support a family



  • Many countries are getting overcrowded so the governments encourage people to move to different countries
  • Most run from oppression, religious persecution and starvation
    • Irish Potato Famine
      • The potato, a staple in Irish diet, is wiped out leaving people starving
      • Pushed people to leave the country


City Life

  • Thieves and crime
  • Trash: sewage
  • Soot, dirt
  • Dark
  • No police force
  • Housing shortage
  • Unsanitary
  • Cholera, typhus and tuberculosis


Unemployment in cities

  • Employment is high in the city
    • Too many people and not enough jobs
  • Emploment is unstable so many have off and on jobs



  • Could not happen without industrialization
  • Most women did it to supplement income or as an inbetween job
  • By 1850:
    • Vienna: 15,000
    • Paris: 50,000 (legal, must register)
    • London: Est. 80,000 (illegal)
  • Did not want to be registered because of more rules and regulations. Could cost you money in the long run