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Flashcards in Exam 2 Vocabulary Deck (56)
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1

Occur in any cell except germ cells and are not heritable

Somatic mutations

2

Occur in gametes and inherited

Germ-line mutation

3

Occur within genes located on the autosomes

Autosomal mutation

4

Occur within genes located on the X and Y chromosome, respectively

X-linked and Y-linked mutations

5

An alternation in DNA sequence

Mutation

6

Single-base pair substitutions
Insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs (in/del)

Gene level

7

Major alteration in chromosomal structure i.e. translocations, deletions or duplications

Chromosome level

8

Aneuploidy

Genome level

9

A purine replaces a purine (A-G), or pyrimidine replaces a pyrimidine (C-T)

Transitions

10

A purine and a pyrimidine are interchanged (A-C) or (G-T)

Transversions

11

Change of one base pair to another

Point Mutation or Base substitution

12

Still codes for the same amino acid

Silent or Synonymous

13

Results in a different amino acid

Missense or nonsynonymous

14

May result in a stop codon (translation terminated prematurely)

Nonsense mutation

15

Results from insertions or deletions of a base pair

Frameshift mutation

16

Mutations can be classified as according to their phenotypic effects as ______. (7)

loss-of-function mutations
gain-of-function mutations
visible mutations
nutritional mutations
behavioral mutations
regulatory mutations
lethal mutations

17

Specific type of structural variant, due to indels of greater than 1 kb

Copy-number variants (CNVs)

18

Change in gene frequencies in small populations due purely to chance

Random Drift

19

Mating system in which each animal has an equal opportunity to mate with any animal of the opposite sex

Random Mating

20

Mating system in which males are not randomly assigned to females

Nonrandom mating

21

Mating of similar individuals (i.e. black to black, tall to tall)

Positive assortative mating

22

Mating of dissimilar individuals (i.e. black to red, tall to short)

Negative assortative mating

23

Movement of animal from one breeding population to another

Migration

24

Notation
___: proportion of animals in the combined population that are migrants
___: proportion of animals in the combined population that are natives

m
1-m

25

Notation
___: frequency of the recessive allele in the combined population
where qm=(1-m)qn+(m)qmi
___: frequency of the recessive natives
___: frequency of the recessive in migrants

qm
qn
qmi

26

Change in gene frequency due to migration depends upon..

the relative difference in size between the two populations
the diversity of the gene frequencies

27

The greatest change occurs when the number of migrants is _____ compared to the number of natives and when the gene and genotypic frequencies are _____.

large
vastly different

28

Alternation in DNA sequence

Mutation

29

One time mutations---of little consequences unless it provides selective advantage

Non-recurrent mutations

30

Mutational events with characteristic rates---usually occur at low frequencies

Recurrent mutation