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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (68)
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1

All chromosomes apart from the sex chromosomes

Autosomes

2

A chromosome that is represented differently in the two different sexes

Sex chromosomes

3

Female homozygous for the recessive allele or males hemizygous for it display the recessive phenotype

X-linked recessive

4

heterozygous females and males hemizygous for the dominant allele express the dominant phenotype

X-linked dominant

5

Transcription factor needed for male-specific gene expression

SRY

6

PAR1 and PAR2, exist between the X and Y chromosomes

Pseudoautosomal regions

7

One of two X chromosomes in each female somatic cell is randomly inactivated

Random X inactivation hypothesis, Lyon hypothesis

8

Intermating group of individuals

Population

9

The relative frequency of a gene allele in a population

Gene Frequency

10

The relative frequency of a genotypic in a population

Genotypic Frequency

11

Relative frequency of a phenotype in a population

Phenotypic Frequency

12

The collection of alleles found in the members of a population

Gene pool

13

Describes the relationship of allele and genotype frequencies in populations

Hardy-Weinberg Law

14

In an "ideal" population that is infinitely large with random mating and not subject to any evolutionary forces allele and genotypic frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

15

Factor (gene) capable of masking the presence of a second factor (gene) in the expression of a phenotype

Dominant

16

Factor (gene) being masked by the dominant factor (gene)

Recessive

17

Heterozygote cannot be distinguished from the homozygous dominant

Complete Dominance

18

Heterozygote more closely resembles the homozygous dominant

Partial Dominance

19

The heterozygote is exactly halfway between the homozygous dominant and the homozygous recessive

No Dominance

20

The heterozygote exceeds the range established by the homozygous genotypes

Overdominance

21

Both alleles are expressed in separate and distinguishable manner

Codominance

22

The heterozygote exceeds the range established by the homozygous genotypes but can only be passed on from one direction
Example: Callipyge Sheep

Polar Overdominance

23

The proportion of individuals with a single gene mutation do not have an observable phenotype

Penetrance (incomplete)

24

Individuals with the same genotype exhibit varying degree in which the trait is expressed

Expressivity

25

Interaction among genes at different loci such that the expression of genes at one locus depends on the alleles present at one or more other loci. (masking-recessive)

Epistasis

26

Expression is absolutely limited to one sex

Sex-limited

27

The sex influences expression but is not limited to one sex

Sex-Influenced

28

Family trees, are a way of tracing the inheritance of traits in humans and animals

Pedigree

29

______ leads to extensive genetic variation

Independent assortment

30

Line in which animals of like phenotypes perpetuate the phenotypes in their offspring

Pure breed lines