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Flashcards in Quiz 6 Deck (26)
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1

Random Drift

change in gene frequencies in small populations due purely to chance

2

Random Mating

mating system in which each animal has an equal opportunity to mate with any animal of the opposite sex

3

Nonrandom mating

mating system in which males are not randomly assigned to females

4

Positive assortative mating

mating of similar individuals (i.e. black to black, tall to tall)

5

Negative assortative mating

mating of dissimilar individuals (i.e. black to red, tall to short)

6

Migration

movement of animal from one breeding population to another

7

Notation
___: proportion of animals in the combined population that are migrants
___: proportion of animals in the combined population that are natives

m
1-m

8

Notation
___: frequency of the recessive allele in the combined population
where qm=(1-m)qn+(m)qmi
___: frequency of the recessive natives
___: frequency of the recessive in migrants

qm
qn
qmi

9

Change in gene frequency due to migration depends upon..

the relative difference in size between the two populations
the diversity of the gene frequencies

10

The greatest change occurs when the number of migrants is _____ compared to the number of natives and when the gene and genotypic frequencies are _____.

large
vastly different

11

Mutation

alternation in DNA sequence

12

Non-recurrent mutations

one time mutations---of little consequences unless it provides selective advantage

13

Recurrent mutation

mutational events with characteristic rates---usually occur at low frequencies

14

Selection

process by which some individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce

15

Natural selection

influence of environment on the probability that a particular phenotype will survive and reproduce

16

Fitness

capability of a phenotype and corresponding genotype to survive and reproduce

17

Artificial selection

restrictions imposed by man

18

Major force in changing gene frequency

selection

19

Allows identification of known carriers or possible carriers

pedigree information

20

Progeny testing

Processed used to help predict an individual's breeding values involving multiple matings of that individual and evaluation of its progeny; used to determine genotype of a sire
Can only prove a sire is a carrier

21

Test cross

mating designed to reveal the genotype of an individual for a small number of loci

22

Most genetic defects can be categorized as _____-controlled by one gene

qualitative

23

Carrier

individual that is heterozygous for a recessive gene but does not exhibit the recessive trait, looks normal

24

Inbreeding

mating of individuals that are related

25

Curly calf syndrome

Lethal condition characterized by lightweight calves with curved spine, extended and contracted limbs and a thin appearance

26

Neuropathic Hydrocephalus (NH)

Lethal condition characterized by absence of central nervous system tissue, hydrocephalus, skull malformation, and arthrogyposis