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1

what did cuvier believe about catastrophism?

periods of natural disaster wiped out animal species

2

who wrote Principles of Geology?

charles lyell

3

what is uniformitarianism?

gradual, repetitive change shaped the earth's formation: therefore the earth is millions of years old

4

what did lamarck believe and what was right and wrong about his beliefs?

lamarck believed that organisms change over time and that the environment influences traits that are passed down, but he was wrong about inheriting traits gotten during a lifetime from parents

5

How did Malthus's beliefs influence darwin?

helped him come up with the idea of natural selection -- competition for limited resources

6

what is common descent?

the idea that all organisms come from one, simple species

7

example of artificial selection

dog breeding

8

how did darwin almost get scooped?

alfred wallace almost published the same thing before he did

9

four darwinian principles

overproduction of offspring, struggle for existence, inheritance and accumulation of favorable variations, survival and reproduction of the fittest

10

a group of particular species occupying the same area

population

11

an inheritable change in DNA

mutation

12

how do mutations affect evolution?

if a mutation helps an organism to survive and reproduce, it will be passed down, and the population as a whole will change

13

what is the gene pool?

all the genes in a population

14

adaptation vs. mutation

mutation is the change in DNA in one organism, adaptation is the observable change in the organism as a whole

15

three types of natural selection

directional, stabilizing, disruptive

16

what is sexual dismorphism?

when males and females have a distinct phenotype

17

allopatric vs. sympatric speciation

allopatric: physical separation of species. sympatric: no physical separation

18

sexual selection

organisms with this specific trait obtain more mates

19

example of stasis

coelacanth

20

three major eras of the geologic time scale

paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic

21

age of invertebrates

paleozoic

22

age of reptiles

mesozoic

23

age of mammals

cenozoic

24

the cambrian explosion

the appearance of many multicellular life forms. begins the paleozoic period

25

the great dying

75-90% of all organisms said to have died

26

the k/t boundary

asteroid impact that led to the destruction of dinosaurs, ends the mesozoic era

27

what did miller's experiment show?

amino acids could be formed from lightning which could then become proteins

28

two other ways life could have evolved

hydrothermal vents, delivery from space

29

what are primates?

small group of animals which include monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees

30

what are hominids?

primates evolve into humanlike, bipedal species

31

how are humans classified in the animal kingdom?

as apes

32

day 1

light, darkness

33

day 2

sky, water

34

day 3

land and plants

35

day 4

sun, moon and stars

36

day 5

birds, fish

37

day 6

land animals, humans

38

Ruin/Reconstruction Theory

God created the universe, earth, plants, animals, and non-soul bearing humans in Genesis 1:1.
Millions of years later, God destroys the original creation (v. 2) when Lucifer falls.

39

Passive Gap Theory

God creates the universe and earth in verse 1.
There is a long gap of time between verses 1:2 and 1:3, but no ruin of original creation.

40

Achondroplasia

example of an autosomal dominant inheritance disease.
The mutation interferes with formation of the embryonic skeleton.
The disorder is characterized by short limbs and height below 4.5 ft.

41

Huntington’s disease

example of an autosomal dominant inheritance disease.

42

Progeria syndrome

autosomal inheritance. a condition where a mutant gene on an autosome causes a person to age many times faster than they should.

43

An autosomal recessive trait is only expressed

if the offspring is homozygous for the recessive allele.

44

examples of autosomal recessive

tay-sachs, albinism

45

In X-linked inheritance, heterozygous males

are affected while heterozygous females are not.

46

Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by

accidental deletion of a gene

47

nondisjunction

one or more pairs of chromosomes don’t separate as they should during meiosis.

48

common nondisjunction disease

downs syndrome

49

Genetic connections among individuals are displayed in charts called

pedigrees

50

the first cells self-assembled themselves

3.5 billion years ago.

51

early cells became more complex until they became

bacteria.

52

early forms of life were _________ because they lacked oxygen

anerobic

53

where in the cell does transcription occur?

nucleus

54

this RNA molecule acts as a hard copy and is made inside the nucleus

RNA Polymerase

55

what gets linked together to create a protein?

amino acids

56

what sex chromosomes does a male have?

xy

57

what sex chromosomes does a female have?

xx

58

what is autosomal dominant inheritance?

"Autosomal" means that the gene in question is located on one of the numbered, or non-sex, chromosomes. "Dominant" means that a single copy of the disease-associated mutation is enough to cause the disease

59

what might a codon code for if it does not code for an amino acid?

stop or start bases

60

what did james ussher hypothesize?

the earth was created in 4004 BC by back-calculating through the genealogies

61

autosomes vs. sex chromosomes

autosomes, non sex chromosomes

62

what is the genetic code?

the set of rules by which info is encoded into genetic material and translated into proteins by living cells

63

how many amino acids in living organisms

20

64

transcription occurs in the ______ and translation occurs in the _________

nucleus, citoplasm

65

point of transcription

copy info in DNA into RNA

66

point of translation

decode the RNA into a protein

67

what does a ribosome do?

creates proteins by linking amino acids together

68

three types of RNA

messenger, transfer and ribosomal

69

characteristics of RNA

a single (not double) strand of nucleic acids, using uracil and not thymine

70

Tetrapods

four legged, lunged vertebrates

71

amniotes

first animals able to live independently from water.
Amniotes are vertebrates in which the embryo develops surrounded by fluid enclosed by membranes inside the egg.
Includes reptiles, birds and mammals.

72

have milk glands, hair, and are warm blooded.

mammals