Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (72)
what did cuvier believe about catastrophism?
periods of natural disaster wiped out animal species
who wrote Principles of Geology?
what is uniformitarianism?
gradual, repetitive change shaped the earth's formation: therefore the earth is millions of years old
what did lamarck believe and what was right and wrong about his beliefs?
lamarck believed that organisms change over time and that the environment influences traits that are passed down, but he was wrong about inheriting traits gotten during a lifetime from parents
How did Malthus's beliefs influence darwin?
helped him come up with the idea of natural selection -- competition for limited resources
what is common descent?
the idea that all organisms come from one, simple species
example of artificial selection
how did darwin almost get scooped?
alfred wallace almost published the same thing before he did
four darwinian principles
overproduction of offspring, struggle for existence, inheritance and accumulation of favorable variations, survival and reproduction of the fittest
a group of particular species occupying the same area
an inheritable change in DNA
how do mutations affect evolution?
if a mutation helps an organism to survive and reproduce, it will be passed down, and the population as a whole will change
what is the gene pool?
all the genes in a population
adaptation vs. mutation
mutation is the change in DNA in one organism, adaptation is the observable change in the organism as a whole
three types of natural selection
directional, stabilizing, disruptive
what is sexual dismorphism?
when males and females have a distinct phenotype
allopatric vs. sympatric speciation
allopatric: physical separation of species. sympatric: no physical separation
organisms with this specific trait obtain more mates
example of stasis
three major eras of the geologic time scale
paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic
age of invertebrates
age of reptiles
age of mammals
the cambrian explosion
the appearance of many multicellular life forms. begins the paleozoic period
the great dying
75-90% of all organisms said to have died
the k/t boundary
asteroid impact that led to the destruction of dinosaurs, ends the mesozoic era
what did miller's experiment show?
amino acids could be formed from lightning which could then become proteins
two other ways life could have evolved
hydrothermal vents, delivery from space
what are primates?
small group of animals which include monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees
what are hominids?
primates evolve into humanlike, bipedal species
how are humans classified in the animal kingdom?
land and plants
sun, moon and stars
land animals, humans
God created the universe, earth, plants, animals, and non-soul bearing humans in Genesis 1:1.
Millions of years later, God destroys the original creation (v. 2) when Lucifer falls.
Passive Gap Theory
God creates the universe and earth in verse 1.
There is a long gap of time between verses 1:2 and 1:3, but no ruin of original creation.
example of an autosomal dominant inheritance disease.
The mutation interferes with formation of the embryonic skeleton.
The disorder is characterized by short limbs and height below 4.5 ft.
example of an autosomal dominant inheritance disease.
autosomal inheritance. a condition where a mutant gene on an autosome causes a person to age many times faster than they should.
An autosomal recessive trait is only expressed
if the offspring is homozygous for the recessive allele.
examples of autosomal recessive
In X-linked inheritance, heterozygous males
are affected while heterozygous females are not.
Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by
accidental deletion of a gene
one or more pairs of chromosomes don’t separate as they should during meiosis.
common nondisjunction disease
Genetic connections among individuals are displayed in charts called
the first cells self-assembled themselves
3.5 billion years ago.
early cells became more complex until they became
early forms of life were _________ because they lacked oxygen
where in the cell does transcription occur?
this RNA molecule acts as a hard copy and is made inside the nucleus
what gets linked together to create a protein?
what sex chromosomes does a male have?
what sex chromosomes does a female have?
what is autosomal dominant inheritance?
"Autosomal" means that the gene in question is located on one of the numbered, or non-sex, chromosomes. "Dominant" means that a single copy of the disease-associated mutation is enough to cause the disease
what might a codon code for if it does not code for an amino acid?
stop or start bases
what did james ussher hypothesize?
the earth was created in 4004 BC by back-calculating through the genealogies
autosomes vs. sex chromosomes
autosomes, non sex chromosomes
what is the genetic code?
the set of rules by which info is encoded into genetic material and translated into proteins by living cells
how many amino acids in living organisms
transcription occurs in the ______ and translation occurs in the _________
point of transcription
copy info in DNA into RNA
point of translation
decode the RNA into a protein
what does a ribosome do?
creates proteins by linking amino acids together
three types of RNA
messenger, transfer and ribosomal
characteristics of RNA
a single (not double) strand of nucleic acids, using uracil and not thymine
four legged, lunged vertebrates
first animals able to live independently from water.
Amniotes are vertebrates in which the embryo develops surrounded by fluid enclosed by membranes inside the egg.
Includes reptiles, birds and mammals.