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1

What is the defining characteristic of E woodlands

deciduous trees

2

onset of the holocene marked the ecological shift to

modern plant and animal communities

3

joseph caldwell

primary forest efficiency

4

diverse economies due to efficient exploitation if diverse deciduous forest foods and natural resources

primary forest efficiency

5

diverse forest resources allowed archaic people to create

economic surplus and become more sedentary

6

"unilineal evolution," caldwell assumes that hunter-gatherers

evolve toward social complexity

7

ecological approaches 1960s

optimal foraging theory

8

OFT- archaic hunter-gatherers began as

simple egalitarian societies

9

OFT as pop density increased, mobility becomes restricted, forcing people to

exploit smaller territories

10

OFT- which then necessitated

more intensive and specialized exploitation of more limited sets or more narrow spectrum of food and material sources

11

earliest archaic pattern?
central mississippian valleys and tributaries
variations on the same dart point style

Dalton tradition (8500-8000 bc)

12

used adzes, among the first woodworking tools in the americas, adapted to rivers and bottomlands-fishing, cemeteries and caches of dart points

Dalton tradition

13

deeply stratified archaic campsite, illinois bottomlands, 8000 bc- ad 1200

Koster site

14

Horizon 11 at the koster site, 7500 bc

cooking facility, dart points, charred hickory nuts and grinding stone

15

burials at the koster site

early archaic flexed burials, Atlatl "totem", dog burials, grooved axes

16

late archaic shell midden and cemetery 3000-2000 bc, green river culture

Indian Knoll

17

found at Indian knoll:

objects with holes bored in them, shell midden, atlatl counter weights, antler hooks

18

intensive, semi-sedentary riverine adaption,
fairly egalitarian, some status ascribed,
some burials with exotic goods,
some burials with trauma

green river culture

19

found on the coast from south carolina to florida, 3000-1000 bc Late Archaic,
1-4 m in height
50-250 m in diameter
represent development of more complex social arrangements

Late archaic shell rings

20

ideas of what the shell rings could be

feasting ritual monuments?
Domestic villages with houses on rings?

21

oldest pottery in N America, south atlantic coast, 2500-1200 bc, some are textured and decorated

spanish moss tempered ware

22

indigenous cultigens of north america

by 2500bc
marsh elder, sunflower, goosefoot, squash gourd

23

indigenous cultigens of eastern north america, weedy camp followers lead to cultivated crops, horticulture/gardening, supplement hunter-gathering

eastern agricultural complex

24

characteristics of late archaic-terminal archaic 2500-1000 bc

first production and use of pottery
first horticulture
elaboration of mound centered rituals
local and regional networks, social and economic

25

1700-700 bc, six concentric ridges, five mounds within and outside ridges, one very large mound, around an extremely large plaza

poverty point

26

mound A at poverty point

built all at once, 2nd largest to monks mound,
evidence shows it was not a burial mound, probably a monument itself

27

all lithics from poverty point came from

Arkansas, the Ozarks

28

the was a --- and --- industry at poverty point

bead making and lapidary

29

pieces of fired clay shaped in different ways, , substitute for rocks, would hold heat, used in cooking

poverty point objects

30

poverty point had the first

complex lower mississippi valley culture