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hopewell setting

ohio valley, but spread into the eastern woodlands


hopewell chronology

developed 200 bc- 500 ad
increases in complexity and then declines after ad 400-500


hopewell economy

increasing importance of horticulture, continental scale trade and exchange


hopewell architecture

enormous mounds with clusters covering many acres, geometric earthworks, charnel houses were erected and burnt, elite were buried in log lined tombs


hopwell social structures

communities were nearby but not in the mound centers, there were interacting polities, and increasing social status for some. The reciprocity and exchange networks may have create "big men"


iroquois setting

new york state, southern ontario, st. lawrence river


iroquois chronology

owasco after ad 1300
height of communities after ad 1400
decline into the contact period


iroquois economy

maize based agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering


iroquois architecture

rectangular longhouses with rounded ends, sidewall benches, end cubicle storage areas. Villages were in defensible positions and had pallisades


iroquois social structure

matrilineal and matrilocal societies, women were the breadwinners. Shamanistic societies focused on healing


adena setting

central ohio river valley, along major rivers and tributaries, rich alluvial soils and resources


adena chronology

ca 1000 bc- 100 bc
exchange and long term cultural change developing into other cultures


adena economy

H-G, increasing importance of horticulture, locally intensified foraging, long distance trade fostering intergoup relationships, these made up for food shortages


adena architecture

conical burial mounds made with layer of earth, people lived in small hamlets and villages, later they possibly erected charnel houses


adena social structure

numerous small scale interacting societies, started as egalitarian but began developing stratification, shamanistic societies focusing on transformative abilities developed


cahokia setting

american bottom, southern illinois, high ground within a mississippian floodplain, exceptional diversity


cahokia chronology

emerged quickly 1050-1150 AD
peaked around 1200 AD
experienced rapid decline by AD 1300


cahokia economy

extensive trade network, alluvial soils facilitated agriculture, exploited rivers and terrestrial game, trade for food shortage


cahokia architecture

built imposing public structures and shrines, sweathouses. People lived in pole and thatch houses, varying in size. There were mound and plaza structures, large 4 layer mound monks mound


cahokia social structure

the great capital was at cahokia, with smaller political and administrative sites nearby, society was highly ranked, evidenced in elaborate burial practices and goods