Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Cognitive Psychology > Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (60):
1

well-defined problems

all aspects of the problem and the goal are well defined

2

ill-defined problem

- underspecified
- endless strategies you use

3

knowledge-rich problems

can only be solved by those having much relevant specific knowledge (chess problems)

4

knowledge-lean problems

doesn't require as much knowledge because most info needed to solve the problem is in the initial problem statement

5

insight

problems requiring productive thinking use insight

6

facilitating insight

- hints
- incubation and sleep

7

functional fixedness

occurs when we mistakenly assume that any given objects has only a limited number of uses

8

mental states

continuing to use a previously successful problem-solving strategy even when it's inappropriate

9

means-ends analysis problem solving strategy

- note the difference between the problem state and goal state
- form a subgoal to reduce the difference
- select a mental operator (move) that permits attainment of the subgoal

10

hill climbing problem solving strategy

- changing the present state within the problem into one closer to the goal
- used when solver has no clear understanding of the problem structure

11

progress monitoring problem solving strategy

- assess the rate of progress towards the goal
- if progress is too slow to solve the problem within the maximum number of moves allowed, people adopt a different strategy

12

planning problem solving strategy

- most people presented with complex problems will engage in some preliminary planning

13

analogy

a comparison between two objects that highlights respects in which they are thought to be similar

14

associative analogies

car: trailer :: donkey: cart

15

categorical analogies

rodent: mouse :: appliance: toaster

16

explicit reasoning

slow, deliberate, and associated with conscious awareness (relied on by novices)

17

implicit reasoning

fast, automatic, and not associated with conscious awareness (relied on by experts)

18

plasticity

changes in structure and function of the brain that affect behavior and are related to experience of training (people learning to juggle show 5% increase in grey and white matter in the visual motion area over 6 weeks)

19

limitations of deliberate practice

- Hard to assess deliberate practice with precision
- Correlational data do not prove causality
- Deliberate practice is necessary but not sufficient to produce skill
- The model ignores innate talent
- Individual differences in IQ are important

20

judgement

involves deciding on the likelihood of various events using the incomplete information

21

decision making

involves selecting one option from several possibilities

22

affect heuristic

basing a rapid judgement on emotional responses such as dread or fear

23

support theory

any given event will appeal more or less likely depending on how it is described

24

natural sampling

what happens in everyday life

25

system #1 of dual-process theory

- intuitive
- automatic
- immediate
- most heuristics are produced by this system

26

system #2 of dual-process theory

- analytical
- controlled
- consciously monitored
- rule-governed
- serial
- more cognitively demanding
- flexible

27

omission bias

preference for inaction over action when engaged in risky decision making

28

status-quo bias

individuals often prefer to accept the status quo rather than change their decision

29

selective exposure

a preference for information that strengthens pre-existing views; avoidance of information that conflicts with pre-existing views

30

inductive reasoning

- making a generalized conclusion from statements referring to particular instances
- conclusions are probably but not necessarily true

31

deductive reasoning

- drawing conclusions that are definitely valid provided the assumptions are true
- based on formal logic

32

logical operators

- conditional reasoning
- or, and, if
- ex: then, if and only if

33

matching bias

tendency to select cards matching the items mentioned in the rule

34

strengths of mental models

- predictions have been confirmed experimentally
- predict participants' responses to a rate of 95% accuracy

35

weaknesses of mental models

- assumes more deductive reasoning occurs than actually does
- underspecification of the process
- does not account for ambiguous reasoning problems

36

three principles of Heuristic-analytic theory

- singularity
- relevance
- satisficing

37

strengths of heuristic- analytic theory

- Wide applicability within cognitive research
- Evidence for reasoning being based on singularity, relevance and satisficing principles
- Evidence for distinguishing between heuristic and analytical processes is strong
- Accounts for some individual differences based on the extent to which they use analytic
processes

38

limitations of heuristic-analytic theory

- Distinction between heuristic and analytic processing is too neat
- Implicit/explicit and heuristic/analytic may actually represent two independent dimensions
- Not clear how individuals decide on which process to use
- Assumes logic is conscious
- Fails to lay out how the heuristic
and analytic processes interact

39

informal reasoning

a form of reasoning based on one's relevant knowledge and experience rather than logic

40

emotion vs. mood

- emotion is intense, long-lasting, and specific
- mood is short in duration and vague

41

strengths of appraisal theories

- process determines if we experience emotion and influence the precise emotion experienced
- Individual differences in emotional experience can be explained by appraisals
- Distinction between conscious and automatic processes has proved valuable
- Cognitive manipulations affect
emotion

42

limitations of appraisal theories

- Situational appraisal is not always crucial
- Research has focused on passive individuals
- Appraisal theories focus on emotional experience due to the current situation, not the future
- Causal structure may not be
unidirectional

43

emotion generation

activating a spontaneous emotional response

44

strengths of emotion regulation

- Brain regions associated with regulation have been identified
- Effectiveness of strategies is understood
- Processes can be explicit or implicit
- Influencing factors have been
identified

45

limits of emotion regulation

- Distinction between emotion generation and regulation may not be clear cut
- Behavioral strategies of regulation are more common
- Environmental influences on successfulness of strategy not accounted for
- Details about processing are not elucidated
- Individual differences not
accounted for

46

deontological judgements

moral rules and affective system

47

utilitarian judgements

cognitive system

48

attentional bias

selective attention to threat-related stimuli

49

interpretive bias

tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening

50

explicit memory bias

tendency to retrieve negative, not positive, memories

51

implicit memory bias

tendency to exhibit superior performance for negative or threatening stimuli in tests not involving conscious recollection

52

Cognitive biases associated with anxiety

- attentional bias
- interpretive bias
memory bias (explicit)

53

Cognitive biases associated with depression

memory bias (explicit),
interpretive bias, memory bias (implicit), attentional bias

54

consciousness

the experience of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, awareness of the external world, and often in human self-awareness

55

researcher beliefs on free will

- Aarts & van den Bos believe we have the ability to make choices free from constraints
- bode believes free will is an illusion

56

assumptions of global workspace theory

- Processing involves special-purpose unconscious processors
- Consciousness is associated with integrating information
- Brain areas vary as a function of content of consciousness
- Attention linked closely with consciousness

57

brain regions associated with consciousness

- anterior cingulate cortex
- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

58

strengths of global workspace theory

- All major assumptions have been supported
- Early processing of seen and unseen stimuli is similar
- Consciousness is associated with integrated brain activity
- Close links between attention
and conscious awareness

59

limits of global workspace theory

- Focuses narrowly on processes for visual perception
- Integrated brain functioning is not necessarily the neural substrate for consciousness
- Psychological processes have
been neglected

60

hemispheres in split-brain patients

- Right hemisphere outperformed left on visuo-spatial tasks
- Left hemisphere performed better on language tasks