Exam 3: Blood and Hemostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Blood and Hemostasis Deck (42):
1

Explain properties and layers of blood

  • 8% of body's total weight
  • pH range of 7.35-7.45
  • Plasma is blood w/o formed elements
  • Serum is blood w/o the clotting proteins

2

What are the three layers of herarinied and centrifuged blood?

 

  1. Supernate (plasma)
  2. Buffy coat ( leukocytes)
  3.  Precipitate (sedimented RBCs) largest component

3

What does plasma contain?

albumin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, lipids (lipoproteins), hormones, vitamins, and salts.

4

How can blood serum be defined?

 

a protein-rich fluid lacking fribrinogen but containing albumin, immunoglobulins, and other components

5

What is contained in the buffy coat?

 

leukocytes and platelets, (~1% of blood)

6

Contrast blood in Males vs. Females

 

  • Males:
    • 5-6 Liters
    • 44-54% formed elements
    • 47% hematocrit
  • Females
    • 4-5 Liters
    • 38-48% formed elements
    • 42% hematocrit

7

What are the blood proteins and their properties?

 

  • Fibrinogens
    • made in liver
    • function in blood clotting
    • Targer for thrombin
  • Albumins
    • made in liver
    • exert major osmotic press on B.V. walls
  • Globulins
    • Immunoglobulins

8

Characteristics of erythrocytes (RBCs)

 

  • erythropoietin can influence increase in #
  • devoid of granules and organelles
  • Major contents
    • lipids
    • ATP
    • Carbonic Anhydrase
    • Hemoglobin
  • Proteins
    • ~50% are integral membrane proteins
    • peripheral proteins: spectrin, actin (ankyrin bound)

9

Identify the slide below

 

Q image thumb

Normal Erthyrocytes

10

Identify the slide below

 

Q image thumb

Sickle Cell erythrocytes

11

What have RBC been useful in studying.

 

The cortical cytoskeleton

12

What property of RBCs makes studying the plasma membranes and easily isolating the associated proteins.

 

They have no nucleus or organelles.

13

What is the principal determinate of a RBC shape

 

cortical cytoskeleton

14

What is the major structural protein of RBCS? What family of actin-binding proteins does it belong to?

 

Spectrin, calponin family of actin binding proteins

15

Explain the spectrin-actin network of RBCs

 

a tetramer of two polypeptide chains, α & ß. The ends of spectrin tetramers associate with short actin filaments

16

What does ankyrin do?

 

Links the spectrin-actin network and the plasma membrane by binding to spectrin and a transmembrane protein (band 3)

17

What is Protein 4.1?

It is another link that binds spectin-actin junctions and the transmembrane protein glycophorin.

18

What name is also associated with Neutrophils?

 

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)

19

Describe Leukocytes:

 

  • Nuclear Lobes w/connecting strands
  • active amoeboid phagocytes
  • small numerous spedific granules
  • larger, less numerous azurophilic granules
  • 10-12 h in circulation, live 1-2 after leving circulation
  • secrete emzyme to destroy bacteria (superoxide)
  • release lysozome & lactoferrin for bacterial walls

20

Decribe the cells in the slide below

 

Q image thumb

Neutrophils

21

Describe the cells in the slide below

Q image thumb

Neutrophils

22

Describe the cells in the slide below

 

Q image thumb

Neutrophils

23

Describe the cells in the image below

 

Q image thumb

neutrophils

24

Basophils have a lobulated (bilobed) nucleus, what do their large, membrane bound basosophilic granules contain?

  • Vasoactive Substance
    • serotonin
    • Herparin (anticoagulant)
    • Kallikrein

25

What effect do the leukotrienes produced by basophilic granues have?

 

  • Increase vascular permeability
  • slow contraction of smooth muscles

26

Eosinophils, like basophils, have a bilobed nucleus, what specific granules do they contain?

 

  • Major basic protein (MBP)
    • disrupts parasite membrane
    • causes basophils to relases histomine
  • Peroxidases
  • Cationic protein
    • neutralizes heparin and is anti-parasitic

27

How do Eosinophils function?

 

  • Respond in allergic disease and parasitic infections
  • Phagocytize antibody-antigen complexes and parasites.

28

Identify the granulocyte in the slide below

 

Q image thumb

Eosiniphil

29

Identify the granulocyte in the slide below

 

 

 

Q image thumb

Basophil

30

Identify the cell below

 

Q image thumb

Lymphocyte. Notice how the nucleus fills most of cell

31

Explain the nucleus and two different cell lines that arrise from a Lymphocyte:

 

  • Large round, sometimes slightly indented; and it fills most of the cell
  • B-lymphocytes: bone marrow
    • precursor of plasma cell
  • T-Lymphocyte:Thymus
    • Precursor of T lymphocyte?

32

Identify the cell the blue line is NOT point to.

 

Q image thumb

Monocytes

33

A monocyte is the the largest leukocyte, what does its nucleus look like? What is it a precursor of?

 

Kidney shaped nucleus, precursor of macrophages and osteoclasts

34

What are platelets derived from and how many can exist per microliter of blood?

 

Derived from megakaryocytes, 200,000 -400,000/microliter of blood.

35

How do platelets enhance aggregation and what can they promote?

 

Enhance regulation by release of factors, and they promote clot formation, retraction, and dissolution.

36

How is damage to endothelium repaired?

 

A platelet plug is formed.

37

T/F adhesion of platelets involves integrins?

 

True

38

One way platelets can increase platelet aggregation is through the release of ___________.

 

Thromboxane

39

To decrease platelete aggregation, endothelial cells can release _________.

 

 Prostacyclin

40

Accumulation of blood in tissues is called a _________.

 

Hematoma

41

Hemostasis is the elemination of bleeding and the mechanism is most effective in __________, __________, and ___________

 

capillaries, arterioles, venules

42

5 Steps of hemostatic sequence

  • Constriction of smooth muscles around vessels
  • Constriction of vessels
  • Slowing of blood
  • Formation of platelet plug
  • Blood clotting (coagulation)