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1

Pulmonary parenchyma

Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and
alveoli.

2

Laryngectomy

removal of the voice box

3

Phren/o

diaphragm

4

Asbestosis

Asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs.

5

Orthopnea

abnormal condition in which breathing (-pnea) is easier in the
upright position

6

Pyothorax

collection of pus in the pleural cavity

7

DPT

diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus—toxoids for vaccination of infants, to provide immunity to these diseases

8

Lung sounds

-pleural rub: Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each
other.

-rales (crackles): Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when
there is fluid in the alveoli.

-rhonchi: Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.

-stridor

-wheezes: Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing.

9

Stridor

Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by
obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.

throat abscess, airway injury, croup, allergic reaction, or epiglottitis and laryngitis

10

Lung collapse

Pneumothorax - air in pleural cavity

11

Rhinorrhea vs. expectoration

runny nose

Clearing of secretions from the airway by coughing or spitting

12

Pulmonary abscess

Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.

13

Hemoptysis

Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract, a sign of bleeding and disease within the bronchial tubes and lungs.

14

COPD

Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs.

Caused by smoking, air pollution, chronic infection, and, in a minority of cases, asthma.

chronic bronchitis COPD are referred to as “blue bloaters”

emphysema are called “pink puffers”

15

Endoscopic exam of lungs

bronchoscopy

16

Hypercapnia vs hypoxemia

excessive carbon dioxide in the blood

an abnormally low concentration of oxygen in the blood

17

Incision into the chest

thoracotomy

18

Rod shaped bacteria

cause of tuberculosis

19

To examine the voice box visually

laryngoscopy

20

Blood protein

hemoglobin

21

vaccination

Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response

22

parts of long bones

diaphysis
epiphysis
epiphyseal line or plate
metaphysis - flared portion
periosteum - outter
Compact (cortical) bone - mid
haversian canals - waste remove
medullary cavity - yellow bone
Cancellous bone - spongy

23

differentiate anemia

aplastic anemia - Failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

hemolytic anemia - Reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction

pernicious anemia - Lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12
into the bloodstream

sickle cell anemia

thalassemia - Inherited defect in ability to produce hemoglobin, leading to hypochromia

24

immature blood cells

erythroblast

25

Polycythemia vs hemochromatosis

General increase in red blood cells (erythremia)

Excess iron deposits throughout the body

26

Hemophilia

Excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors (factor VIII or IX) necessary for blood clotting.

27

Coagulation time vs erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube

Speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma

28

Hematocrit vs sed rate

Percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

29

Edema vs petechiae

(swelling) results when too much fluid from blood “leaks” out
into tissues

tiny purple or red flat spots appearing on the skin as a result of hemorrhages

30

Immunoglobulins

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

antibodies that bind to and sometimes destroy antigens (foreign substances)