Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (56):
Differences between Emotions and moods.
Emotions are specific, shorter.
Moods are generally longer lasting, come from a different source or a less specific source.
Who has identified six basic universal emotions?
Paul Ekman. These rules are bio based
What are display rules?
Are rules given by cultures on how to show emotions.
Can display rules be different in others cultures?
Yes because they are affected by different cultures.
What is important about Language development. And social development?
That language development and social development that if you miss it at a young age or miss the window of overt unity then you won't be able to learn them.
What is developmental psychology?
Is the sub field of psychology that studies the course and causes of physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development over a persons life span.
What does the term development mean in this context?
It refers to age related changes that are systematic, sequential, and long lasting.
What does developmental psychology often study?
When curtain types of behavior first appear, how these behaviors change with age, and whether these changes occur suddenly, or gradually.
What is Maturation? And who found it.
Gesel found that motor skills develop in a fixed sequence of stages as a child. These things are dictated by nature not by nurture.
Jean Piaget said what?
Nature and nurture are inseparable and interact with each other.
What did Piaget Argue?
He argued that children are active learners. That children are little scientists.
What are schemes?
Are mental images that are the basic units of knowledge. Generally formed through experiences. Function to organize past experiences and provided framework for understanding future experiences.
What is Accommodation?
Current schemes are changed to fit new stimuli.
What is Emotion?
Are changed in Psychological states that tend to result from a specific source an motivate a specific action.
What is Meaning making?
Paget - "children Active attempts to understand the world."
What Paget Theory has 4 stages?
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
What was the first stage of Cognitive Development?
Sensory motor Period. Children at this age are focused on exploring he world using their senses and their ability to move. Toward the end of the stage, they develop object permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images represents objects, people, and events.
What is the 2nd stage of cognitive development?
Pre-operational period. Children at this age can mentally represent and refer to objects and events with symbols. They fail to recognize "The principle of conservation"
What is object Permanence?
The knowledge that objects exist even when they can't be sensed.
What transitions into the Pre operational period?
What is the concept of reverse ability?
Things can be reversed back to there original state.
What is the concept of Complementarity?
What is the third stage in Cognitive Development?
Concrete Operational Period. Children at this stage are able to conserve and understand other logical mental operations. However, they can only think logically about concrete events until the end of the stage when they may begin developing the ability to think abstractly.
What transitions into the Concrete Operational Period?
What is the 4th stage in the Cognitive Theory?
Formal Operational Period. At this stage people develop the ability to use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events and situations. This gives them the capacity to think about logical possibilities and systematically examine and rest hypothesis
What is Individualistic?
Importance on the individual self, one own thoughts. Stage 5 and 6 Common in individualistic culture.
What is Collectivism?
Importance on the collective Whole.
What are Erikson's psychological stages?
0-1 trust vs mistrust
1-3 autonomy vs same and doubt
3-6 Initiative vs guilt
6-12 competence vs inferiority
12-19 identity vs role confusion
20-40 intimacy vs isolation
40-65 generatively vs stagnation
65+. Integrity vs despair
Psychoanalysis is what?
Theory + Therapy
What is cycle patten?
Food hunger occurred in a cycle.
What two examples are Freuds principle placed on?
Homeostasis and hedonism
What is homeostasis?
Tendency towards stability, balance getting away from desires.
What is hedonism?
Philosophical Idea, that's main goal of life is pleasure.
What are Freuds two impulses?
Eros and Thanos. These impulses oppose each other.
What is Eros?
Life- force, love; manifests sex, based on the need to discharge the energy in the sex drive.
What is Thanos?
Death-force, self destructive behavior, "death instinct", suicidal or aggressive behavior.
What is Libido?
Psychic energy. If you surpass Libido it doesn't just go away. It will express its self later.
What is Psychic Determinism
all thoughts, emotions, behaviors have causes. All things happen for psychological reasons
What is Freuden Wish Fulfillment?
The underlining wish is disguised by the dream.
What components did Freud brake dreams into?
Manifest content and Latent content.
What is manifest content?
That part of the dream you remember.
What is latent content?
The part of your dream you're not aware of and where the wish fulfillment is located.
What Is ID I'm Freuds Ice berg theory?
Is not mature or logical. It provides the labido. It lacks in moral judgement. Internally rests in the unconscious mind. Operating the pleasure principle.
What is ego?
Mediates between ID and reality. The reality principle governs the ego.
What is super ego?
Consists of conscience and Ego- ideal.
Conscience: says right from wrong.
Ego-Ideal: is the ideal ego.
Th super ego: contradicts basic impulses
What is repression?
Pushing back unacceptable thoughts into the unconscious mind
What is reaction formation?
Replacing an anxiety-producing feeling with it's exact opposite. Typically going overboard.
What is rationalization?
Creating false, but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior.
What is sublimation?
Redirecting forbidden impulses toward a socially desirable goal.
What is displacement?
Redirecting emotional feelings to a substitute target.
What is Projection?
Attributing your own unacceptable feelings to another person.
What is Social cognitive theory?
Leads people toward reinforcement and away from punishment.
What is Phenomenological Theory?
Focused on the persons subjective experience of the world.
What are Rogers and maslows 4 main principles of Psychology?
1. The experiencing person is of primary interest.
2. Human choice, creativity, and self-actualization are the preferred topics of investigation.
3. Meaningfulness must precede objectivity in the selection of research problems.
4. Ultimate value is placed in the dignity of the person.
What is self-actualization?
Developing the capacity to grow. To move towards this you need to experience unconditional positive regard.