Flashcards in PSY-120 Exam 3 Deck (36):
What is the definition of learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience.
How many types of learning are there?
There are 3 types of learning.
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
3. Observable Conditioning
What is classic conditioning?
Study of how a natural stimulus could result in a natural response. It involves learning by association.
Who was Pavlov?
He was physiologist who studied the digestive system of dogs. He measured dogs Sylvia. Do do this he used Classical Conditioning.
What is Operant Conditioning?
Is more complicated at explaining things then Classical. It works because it ether Reinforces or Punishes the subject through effect. It's about the consequences. Operant is more spontaneous.
What Type of learning did Watson use?
Watson used Operant Conditioning, even though he meant to use classical. He conditioned a baby called little Albert.
What is acquisition?
Learning a new response.
What did Watson say about Phobic disorders and fear?
That fear can be conditioned and learned. That phobic disorders can be developed. That fear was not unconscious. That fear is not symbolic.
What is single-trial learning?
When learning circumstances are particularly intense, learning can sometimes occur after just one pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
What is Stimulus Generalization?
If an organism learns a response to one particular stimulus, then a similar stimuli will also tend to elicit the same response.
What is Stimulus Discrimination?
Organisms can also learn to distinguish between one particular stimulus and other similar stimuli.
What is Extinction?
The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented once more, then the conditioned response may temporarily reappear.
What is Spontaneous Recovery?
When a period of time has passed since extinction, if the conditioned response may temporarily reappear.
What is Chunking?
Connecting your short-term memory to your long-term memory. You take info from your long-term memory and use it to organize your short-term memory.
What is Semantic encoding and when does it take place?
It focuses on the underline meaning of the information being stored. Semantic encoding takes place when you story information into long-term memory.
What is Primacey Effect? And recencey effect?
Recall is good at the beginning, slows down and then is good at the end.
What is Reconstructed memory?
The we use information that we already possess to organize new information as we receive it and to fill in gaps in information we incised and retrieve it. Often to fill in gap with false information.
What is Intelligence?
Ability to understand complex ideas.
Understanding, adapting, learning, thinking.
What is Stenberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?
That there are three components of intelligence. Stenberg states that there is successful Intelligence.
What is Componential Intelligence?
Analytical intelligence: cognitive processes that constitute the basis of intelligence
What is Experiential Intelligence?
Creative intelligence: intelligence as it is affected by the familiarity or novelty of a situation.
What is Contextual Intelligence?
Practical intelligence: intelligence as it is influenced by and defined by one's surroundings.
How many Intelligences are in Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
There are 9
What is Linguistic intelligence?
Language and verbal skills.
What is Logical/mathematical Intelligence?
Math and quantitive skills.
What is Musical Intelligence?
Appreciating and understanding music.
What is Spatial intelligence?
Perceiving forms accurately and making visual manipulations.
What is Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence?
Manual dexterity and skillfully controlling the body.
What is Intropersonal Intelligence?
Understanding the thoughts, emotions, and behavior of others.
What is Intrapersonal Intelligence?
Understanding of own thoughts emotions, and behavior.
What is Naturalistic Intelligence?
Understanding nature and being able to survive well in the natural environment.
What is Existential intelligence?
Where your religious beliefs come from. Though this theory can not be proven.
What is neuron-maleate?
To seek connections that you didn't have before.
What do Environmental Enrichment and Deprivation tend to lead to?
Enrichment tend to lead to increased Intelligence scores and Deprivation lead to a decrease in Intelligence scores.
What did Goul Discover?
That Neurogenesis occurs through adult hood.