Flashcards in Exam 4 - Antidepressants Deck (18):
Sleep disturbances are a common symptom of depression, how does it differ between kids and adults?
Adults = insomnia
Children = sleeps all day
What type of depression is considered a "chemical imbalance" and responds to antidepressant medications?
Primary (endogenous) depression
Secondary (exogenous) depression is caused by what?
Occurs chronological with pre-existing not-affective disorders, disease, trauma, and chronic pain,
What is secondary (exogenous) depression completely alleviated by?
Treatment of the non-affective disorder
What is bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder) characterized by?
Recurrent wide swings in mood from depression to mania. Treat with lithium
What is the name for depression related to decreased levels of synaptically released norepinephrine and/or serotonin in the brain and what is the result of an excess of these transmitters?
Biogenic amine hypothesis
Results in mania
Limitations of the biogenic amine hypothesis include: _________ increase extracellular levels of NTs almost immediately. However their therapeutic effects are seen only after several ____ of treatment.
An additional theory to the biogenic amine hypothesis suggests that antidepressants produce compensatory changes in the levels and or functioning of many receptors, what 4 receptors?
1. alpha 1
2. alpha 2
3 functions of serotonin
1. Elevates mood
2. Helps you fall asleep and have good quality of sleep
3. Acts on satiety center in the brain to help you feel full after eating
In general, what is the mechanism of action of antidepressant medications?
Increase the amount of NT in the synaptic cleft either by inhibition of reuptake or enzymatic degradion
Which type of antidepressant's mechanism of action increases synaptic serotonin and norepinehrine?
Which type of antidepressant's mechanism of action increases synaptic norepinephrine?
Which type of antidepressant's mechanism of action blocks the degradation of noreprinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin?
Which type of antidepressant's mechanism of action increases synaptic serotonin?
How is dopamine-reuptake inhibitor bupropion (Wellburtrin, Zyban) used in dentistry?
What are 2 side effects/risks associated with bupropion?
1. Increased risk for seizures
2. Risk for emergent hypertension with concurrent nicotine patch use
What is the effect of the drug interaction of epinephrine with tricyclic and MAOI antidepressants?
Increased blood pressure - hypertension