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Flashcards in Exam I Study Questions Deck (310)
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0

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast - form bone; osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone; osteoclast - remodel bone

1

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

2

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type I

3

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

4

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

sodium, magnesium, flouride, lead, strontium and radium

5

What are the three responses of bone which allow it to be describe as "living"?

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors, and to age

6

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

7

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

from the second to third month in utero

8

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

9

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the second to fifth month in utero

10

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

chondrocranium

11

What bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both the endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

12

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

13

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

gender variation (sexual dimorphism), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

14

What are the six more commonly used classifications of normal bone?

long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones and sesamoid bones

15

What is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?

heterotopic bone

16

What is the name given to bone formed from existing bone?

accessory bone

17

What are examples of long bones?

humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula

18

What is the primary characteristic of short bones?

they are essentially cuboidal

19

What are examples of short bones?

most of the the bones of the carpus and tarsus

20

What is characteristic of pneumatic bone?

air spaces with the bone

21

What is the characteristic of a sesamoid bone?

the bone develops within a tendon

22

What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?

patella and pisiform

23

What are examples of heterotopic bone?

calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart, and ligaments

24

What are the four basic surface feature categories?

elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways and facets

25

What are the types of osseous elevations?

linear, rounded and sharp

26

When do the surface features of bone become prominent?

during and after puberty

27

What are the types of osseous linear elevation?

the line, ridge and crest

28

What are the categories of osseous linear depressions?

notch or incisure, groove, and sulcus

29

What are the types of rounded osseous elevations?

tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber or tuberosity and malleolus