Flashcards in Exam II Acid/Base Balance, Electrolytes, Osmometer Deck (71)
Major intracellular cation
Major extracellular cation
Major extracellular anion
What is the endpoint of mercurimetric chloride assay?
when excess Hg2+ forms a complex with an indicator like dyphenylcarbazon, producing a violet-blue color
What two cations are most likely to be ordered to determine the cause of cardiac tetany?
calculate anion gap. be able to correlate abnormal anion gaps with other test results (such as BUN) or with instrument/tech errors
(Na + K)-(Cl + HCO3) = 12-20mmol/L
Na - (Cl + HCO3) = 8-18 mmol/L
What does %saturation refer to?
%saturation= serumFe/TIBC x 100
What is hypokalemia?
low serum potassium
caused by dietary intake
If tetany is due to calcium, what specific fraction of calcium is involved?
Will it be increased or decreased?
What analyte in the blood is used to measure serum phosphorous?
What is the normal value of serum phosphorous?
Why is it important to measure serum magnesium levels?
check for tetany due to magnesium deficiency
In analyzing calcium by atomic absorption, why is lanthanum added?
to prevent interference of phosphate
Calcium exist in serum as?
Which is physiologically active?
ionized(free) and protein bound
A patient with lactic acid acidosis would have an (increased/decreased) anion gap?
What is the purpose of adding magnesium carbonate to an iron binding capacity?
to remove excess unbound iron
What does TIBC measure?
estimates transferrin level in serum
In what method is phosphate in serum combined with ammonium molybdate to form phosphomolybdate, which is then reduced to aminonapthosulfonic acid which is measured with spectrophotometery?
Fiske-Subbarow method for Phosphorus
Serum calcium and phosphorous have what kind of relationship?
What is the normal serum calcium level?
What would be the expected test results for calcium and phosphorus in hyperparathyroidism?
What is the purpose of adding stannous chloride, ferrous sulfate, and ascorbic acid in the determination of inorganic phosphorus?
*reduces phosphomolybdate to aminonapthosulfonic acid
Name several things that can affect the level of circulating calcium
serum protein levels
bone cell activity
What two hormones control serum calcium levels?
PTH and Calcitonin
*have an antagonistic relationship*
Which electrolyte is the chief plasma base that helps in maintaining osmotic pressure?
Hemolysis has the greatest effect on which serum levels?
What is the function of aldosterone?
promotes sodium by kidneys, which results in increased water retention, blood vol and BP
What hormone has the most control over serum phosphate levels?
What is the normal serum osmolality?
275-295 mOsm/kg of H2O
What are the four main buffer systems in the body?
carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
other plasma proteins
phosphate-phosphoric acid system