MLT 130 Final Endocrinology, Body Fluids, Toxicology Flashcards Preview

MLT 130 Clinical Chemistry I > MLT 130 Final Endocrinology, Body Fluids, Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in MLT 130 Final Endocrinology, Body Fluids, Toxicology Deck (101)
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1

What fraction(s) of bilirubin is/are increased in a hemolytic disorder?

unconjugated
total

2

Which fraction might be expected to be increased in a hepatic disorder?

conjugated; direct

3

In severe hemolytic jaundice, what would be expected results for bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine, feces, and blood?

Urine - greatly increased urobilinogen
Feces - increased urobilinogen and urobilin
Blood - increased unconjugated bilirubin

4

Where and from what substance is urobilinogen formed?

bilirubin
Bacteria from intestines

5

Another name for prehepatic jaundice is _______.

hemolytic

6

Another name for posthepatic jaundice is _______.

obstructive

7

Another name for FREE (indirect) bilirubin is _______.

unconjugated

8

Another name for direct bilirubin is _______.

conjugated

9

What is the normal range for direct bilirubin?

0.0-0.2 mg%

10

Indirect bilirubin is converted to direct bilirubin by conjugation with _______ ____ by the ____ ____.

glucuronic acid
liver cells

11

In what condition is conjugated bilirubin increased?

biliary obstruction

12

In the Evelyn-Malloy method for bilirubin, quantitation of the bilirubin is made by measuring _______.

azobilirubin

13

In the Jendrassik-Grof method for bilirubin determination, bilirubin reacts with what reagent to form the purple compound azobilirubin?
In this method, what reagent is used to dissolve free bilirubin?

diazotized sulfanilic acid
caffeine

14

What reagents are used in the Watson-Schwartz test?

Ehrlich's reagent
Chloroform
N-Butanol
Sodium acetate
(NOT Diethyl ether)

15

How are porphobilinogen and urobilinogen distinguished from each other since both form a colored compound with p-aminobenzaldehyde?

Porphobilinogen is extracted by chloroform

16

In the synthesis of heme, what is the direct precursor of porphobilinogen?

Delta-aminolevulinic acid (Delta ALA)

17

Why is the stool clay-colored in obstructive jaundice?

urobilinogen is absent due to blockage

18

To what compound is free bilirubin in the plasma attached?

albumin

19

What compound is the precursor of uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin, and protoporphyrin?

porphobilinogen

20

If you know the total bilirubin and the conjugated bilirubin values, how can you determine the value for the unconjugated bilirubin?

total - conjugated

21

Name the three enzymes involved in heme synthesis that are inhibited by lead.

Delta ALA synthase
Porphobilinogen deaminase
Ferrochelatase

22

What is the composition of Erhlich's reagent?

*Diazotized sulfanilic acid

23

Why is unconjugated bilirubin NOT found in the urine?

NOT water soluble

24

What color is urine which contains large amounts of porphyrins?

port wine; magenta

25

Increased bile pigments in the body causes the condition of _______.

jaundice

26

In bilirubin methods, total bilirubin develops a color only after the reagent _______ _______ is added.

methyl alcohol

27

What is the biochemical defect associated with Gilbert's disease?

Defective transport of bilirubin from plasma to liver cells; reduced activity of glucuronyltransferase

28

What is the most common condition leading to porphyrinuria?

lead poisoning

29

What normal substance results in the formation of bilirubin when it is broken down?

hemoglobin

30

What substance is increased in the urine of patients with lead poisoning?

Delta-ALA