Exam II - Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam II - Chapter 15 Deck (33):
1

What is an evolutionary arms race (coevolutionary escalation)? Why is it a race with no end?

it is a race between species to outcompete one another; for example frog gets more toxic then snake gets more toxin resistance and frog gets even more toxic etc

2

Müllerian mimicry

occurs when several harmful or distasteful species resemble each other in appearance, facilitated the learned avoidance of predators

3

Batesian mimicry

occurs when harmless species resemble harmful or distasteful species, deriving protection form predators
(different than aposematic b/c with aposematic you must have another species around to mimic)

4

antagonists

(predator/prey) can generate negative frequency-dependant selection on each other (rabbit learns to run faster - then so does coyote and so on)

5

mutualists

frequency dependent selection is positive; the more common individuals with the new alleles become, the more likely they are to encounter other species and the more likely they are to reap the benefits of the mutualistic interaction.

6

endosymbionts

mutualistic organisms that live within the body or cells of another organism

7

symbionts

two individuals that work mutualistically together

8

reciprocal evolutionary change between interacting species driven by natural selection

coevolution

9

selection that occurs in 2 species due to their interactions with one another; critical prerequisite to coevolution

reciprocal selection

10

Table 15.1 and figure 15.1.1

go look at them in the book haha cuz idk how to make a notecard about them :) pages 478 and 484

11

predator/prey conflict ANTI-predator adaptations

-toxins, armor, large bodies, speed
-warning coloration
-cryptic coloration (camouflage)
-mimicry
-flash coloration
-behavioral modification

12

predator/prey conflict predator adaptations

-mimicry, cryptic coloration, speed, acute senses

13

examples of anti-predator mimicry

screech owl mimics environment - makes itself look like the tree its in, sways with wind, etc

grasshopper looks like dead leaf

14

ex of anti-predator flash coloration

grasshopper with blue belly that flashes when it jumps, lizard with yellow belly (leans head and tail back to show colored underside)

15

hog-nose snake

feigning death - form of mimicry (similar to opossums)

16

batesian mimicry: coevolutionary relationships for model, mimic, and predator

for model: neutral mostly, negative sometimes if too many mimics
for mimic: positive always
for predator: negative

17

some mimic examples

robber flies - look like bees
syrphid flies - yellow jackets
bull snake and burrowing owl - mimics rattlesnake sound
sea horse - mimics coral
viceroy - mimics monarch butterfly

18

mullerian mimicry: coevolutionary relationships for model, mimic, and predator

for model and mimic: positive always
for predator: negative

19

appalachian mountain millipedes are an example of a species that have

mullerian mimicry; species have cyanide in bodies and co exist with species that look a lot alike and also have toxins

20

a trait or integrated suite of traits that increase the fitness of the possessor is called an

adaptation

21

rock dove example

feral pigeon that has white rump - better at getting away from a falcon attack b/c of flash coloration
beak sticks over bottom of beak - less lice

22

parasitic birds vs host birds

evolutionary arms race example - cowbirds lay eggs in other nest and their babies take over - other birds starting to realize this and knock eggs out which in turn is making cowbirds lay eggs that look more like host's eggs

23

north american cross bills

prefer different types of pinecones - example of evolutions starting to develop into their own species

24

examples of positive/positive mutualism

pollination; seed dispersal; nutrient exchange between mycorrhiza and plants

25

example of positive/neutral commensalism

remora fish attach to larger fish and detach to feed on the prey killed by larger fish

26

example negative/ positive relationship

predator/prey; deceptive pollination; host/parasite

27

an increase in genetic diversity caused by he heterogeneity of coevolutionary processes across the range of ecological partners

diversifying coevolution

28

sharpshooters are an example of

*quiz* endosymbionts; they have evolved with bacteria that supple the insects with essential nutrients; in return the bacteria have shelter and food
this is also an example of how two species become one - they cannot live without one another

29

*quiz* most specifically defines when 2 rival males compete

intergenomic

30

*quiz* more generally defines when two rival males compete

intraspecific

31

*quiz*sharpshooters have a morphological trait known as

bacteriome

32

*quiz* when species interact antagonistically in a way that results in each species exerting reciprocal directional selection on the other.

coevolution escalation

33

A relationship involving two species in which one species benefits but the other suffers no loss of fitness is known as

positive/neutral commensalism