Flashcards in Final Exam: Human Evolution Chapter 17 Deck (40):
What is Oldowan tool making?
The earliest evidence of a distinctive stone-tool industry that lasted 2.6-1.5 million years ago. oldowan tools suggested that hominins could think more abstractly than their ancestors; could possibly get protein/calories that many other animals couldn't get.
How many times did hominins likely leave Africa?
3 or 4?
(quiz/study guide) What is a parallel human?
Homo neanderthalensis were referred to as parallel humans --- they existed at the same time as humans did
What is the relationship between extant apes and humans?
?? - no idea ... help :(
(quiz 15) _____ are tools associated wiht hominins in Africa between 1.7 mya and 100,000 years ago.
Acheulean technology or oldowan tools
(quiz 15) ___ was a species of ape that lived in spain 13 mya and probably closely related to the common ancestor of humans.
(quiz 15) ___ are members of the clade that contain homo, pan, gorilla, and pongo, while _____ are members of the human branch of the hominid clade.
(quiz 14) ____ is a possible common ancestror to chimps and humans.
(quiz 14)____ is also known as the hobbit.
(quiz 14)____ is considered the most recent common ancestor to humans and Neanderthals.
(quiz 14)___ is the possible evolutionary link between the most advance Australopithicines and the first Homo.
(quiz 14)_____ is a hominid side branch noted for having a sagittal crest.
Paranthropus (robustus, bosei, and aethiopicus)
Do humans belong to the same clade as apes? Do humans belong to the same clade as African apes or Asian apes?
Yes; African apes
When did humans and apes likely diverge? When did humans, chimps, and bonobos possibly diverge from the gorilla branch?
Humans and apes diverged about 7 mya; diverges from gorillas 10 mya
What is the explanation for why humans have 46 chromosomes while the other apes have 48?
Chromosome 2 is a fusion of 2 chromosomes found in other great apes
What are the greatest discoveries paleontologists have made concerning hominid ancestors?
-Turkana Boy --> Homo erectus/Homo ergaster
-Lucy --> Australopithecus afarenis
-Java Man --> Homo erectus (walked upright 28,000 years ago
-Neanderthal DNA found & genome sequenced
-A. afarenis made tools
-A. sediba skeleton found (2010)
Who is the first family of human paleontology?
The Leakey family
What is the relationship between brain size and tooth size?
As brain size increases, tooth size decreases
What is the african replacement model vs the multi regional model? Which has the evidence?
-Multiregional model: origin of humans not at specific time or place, but a slow evolution of Homo erectus throughout the world. Suggests a series of migrations and a constant gene flow between geographical regions
-African replacement model: humans emerged from Africa and shortly after, replaced pre-existing homo populations around the world
-The African replacement model is supported by fossil evidence
What are some of the main anatomical differences between chimps and humans?
Chimps: curved and longer metacarpals; sharp canines, smaller brains, larger jaws and bigger teeth, knuckle walkers, tree climbers
Humans: thicker and shorter thumb, bipedalism, smaller jaws, bigger brains, smaller teeth, longer legs
What are the two big anatomical features that have given humans a huge advantage in dealing with their environment?
Hyoid bone (for speech) & Hand bones (thumb)
What is the relationship between metacarpal I and tool making?
The use of an opposable thumb for grasping/holding allowed for more accurate movements and the intricate process made tool making possible
Did Neanderthals have speech? What is the evidence?
It is possible that Neanderthals had speech due to the fact that they had a hyoid bone similar to humans
Who was the Piltdown man? Who was the Nebraska man?
Piltdown man: a hoax that was created by England to draw attention to the country in hopes to be considered the "cradle of humanity". DNA from bear, ape, and human was found in the "skeleton"
Nebraska man: a hoax; tooth was found that was thought to be from a species of human ancestor. The tooth was actually from a pig.
Who did Louis Leakey help get started in primate research?
Diane Fossey, Jane Goodall and Birute Galdikas
Who is thought to be the transitional form from Australopithecus and Homo?
Remarkable mix of traits
Australopith traits: long arms and short ankle bones, tiny brain
Homo traits: short hands, projecting nose
When in the past do we think multiple species of hominins coexist on earth and in Africa? Who were some of the coexisting species?
-2 mya 4 hominid species coexisted in Africa: paranthropus, Australopithecus habilis
-50,000 years ago coexisting species on earth: Neanderthals, Homo erectus, Denisovans, Homo floresiensis, humans
Why is the Denisova fossil significant?
A new lineage of humans that were close relatives of Neanderthals that also interbred with humans
Why is the Miocene of importance to human evolution?
The end of the Miocene period is when hominins first emerged. there was a drop in average temperature, less rain in Africa, increase in woodlands & grasslands, decrease in tropics, supplies of food were less predictable. All of these conditions paved the way for walking upright and human evolution.
What is the evidence that humans evolved in Africa then left Africa?
The most genetic diversity in living humans is found in Africa which suggests that homo sapiens evolved there and expanded to other continents
What is some of the anatomical evidence for arboriality?
Hand bones: long curved metacarpals for grasping
Clavicle: shorter and thicker for hanging on branches
1st primate-like creature
1st confirmed primate
Possible human ancestor
Very possible human ancestor
Biggest known primate ever to live
Gigantopithecus (5 mya to 300,000 or still alive)
The Miocene period was __-__ mya
23 - 5 mya
Name the 5 main branches of the Apes phylogenetic tree
Homo (best toolmakers and biggest brains)
Paranthropus (specialized skull for crushing/grinding)
Australopithecus (small and slender toolmaker with varied diets and partially bipedal)
Ardipithecus (half arboreal half bipedal)
What's unique about H. ergaster?
Fully committed to walking on the ground