Exam III - Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

Evolution > Exam III - Chapter 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam III - Chapter 16 Deck (54):
1

Differential performance (fitness) of individuals causes some genotypes to outcompete and replace other genotypes

Individual selection

2

Differential performance (fitness) of groups of individuals causes some groups to outcompete and replace other groups

Group selection

3

A mathematical approach to studyign behavior that solves for the optimal decision in strategic situations (games) where the payoff to a particular choice depends on the choices of others

Game theory

4

Behavior that benefits others at a cost to you

Altruism

5

How many genes on average do you share with siblings?

50%

6

How many genes on average do you share with 1st cousins?

25%

7

How many genes on average do you share with offspring?

50%

8

Selfishness is _____ and benefits _____

Adaptive; benefits you and yours

9

Altruism is _____ and...

Maladaptive; cost to you, benefit to others

10

Spite is _____ and...

Maladaptive; cost to you, cost to others

11

Spite is most indicative in _____. Example?

Humans

Children do spiteful things

Young adults in new relationships

12

Why is spite rare in nature?

No benefit to anyone

Social cost - outcast will have lower biological fitness = weeding out in populations rapidly

13

5 Benefits of sociality

  1. Increased vigilance
  2. Dilution effect
  3. Enhanced defense capability
  4. Cooperative foraging/hunting
  5. Improved defense of critical resources

14

5 Costs of sociality

  1. Increased conspicuousness to predators
  2. Increased competition for food
  3. Increased competition for mates
  4. Decreased certainty of paternity/maternity
  5. Increased transmission of disease/parasites

15

The safety in numbers that arises through swamping the foraging capacity of local predators

Dilution effect

16

Probability that homologous alleles in two individuals are identical by descent

Coefficient of relatedness (r)

17

Altruism is more likely to spread when:

  1. Benefits to recipient are great
  2. Costs to actor are low
  3. Participants are closely related

18

How does selfishness affect you (and relations)? them?

(+) = you and yours

(-)/0 = them and theirs

19

How does cooperation affect you (and relations)? them?

(+) = you and yours

(+) = them and theirs

20

How does altruim affect you (and relations)? them?

(-) = you and yours

(+) = them and theirs

21

How does spite affect you (and relations)? them?

(-) = you and yours

(-) = them and theirs

22

An allele for "altruism" will spread if? What rule is this?

Br > C

B = benefit to recipient

r = coefficient of relatedness

C = cost to actor

Hamilton's rule

23

Half-siblings have a coefficient of relatedness of:

1/4

24

Full-siblings have a coefficient of relatedness of:

1/2

25

Cousins have a coefficient of relatedness of:

1/8

26

Which behaviors exist in nature?

Selfishness and cooperation

27

Forms of selfish behavior (benefits you)? (5)

  1. Selfishness
  2. Cooperation
  3. Commensalism
  4. Kin selection
  5. Reciprocal altruism

28

Altruistic acts do occur but normally at a _____ cost to you.

Low

29

A lady with an entire cart full of groceries allows someone with only a few items to "go ahead" in front of her. This scenario does not happen when flipped. What behavior is this?

Altruism

30

Lemmings altruistically dive to their death. What's are some explanations for this that make sense?

Sexual selection? Showing how awesome he is to a mate

"Post-reproductive" - Already reproduced with many females and dies to save resources for offspring

31

Which behaviors should be rare in nature?

Spiteful and altruistic

32

**Selfish Cheater Concept"

  • One selfish individual is all it takes to wipe out altruistic behaviors
  • For altruism to prevail, selfish cheater genes must not exist
  • Theoretical explanation for why altruism cannot exist

33

Black-tailed Prairie Dogs will signal when there is danger. Can differentiate which type of predator (eagle, snake, etc.) by different signal calls. At first this may seem altruistic, but what is this actually an example of?

Kin selection

Explanation: Females are more prone to call than males AND females with kin will be most likely to call. "If I don't survive, my kin will and my genes will pass on." Individuals with relatives will call. Individuals without will not call.

34

An individual's total fitness, including its own reproduction as well as any increase in the reproduction of its relatives due specifically to its own actions

Inclusive fitness

35

Selection arising from the indirect fitness benefits of helping relatives

Kin selection

36

Belding's ground squirrels example

  • Adult males call less than predicted
  • Females more inclined to call than males
  • Females tend to stay put, males get kicked to prevent inbreeding

37

Spadefoot tadpoles develop morphologically different traits depending on their initial _____.

  • Diet
  • Cannibal morph vs. Herbivore morph
  • If it is a dry year, they develop into cannibals. If it is a wet year (lots of algae), then they develop into herbivores.

38

Spadefoot tadpoles will eat _____ to survive

  • Siblings
  • Eat their kin about 21% of the time
  • Know if kin (kin recognition) due to water chemistry

39

White-fronted Bee Eaters example

  • "Helpers at the nest" - Making the best of a bad situation
  • In hard times, offspring will stay behind and help parents
  • The bigger the group, the more likely offspring will survive
  • If the environment makes it difficult for you to reproduce and have direct fitness, then do what it takes to help your indirect fitness

40

Red-cockaded Woodpecker (federally endangered) example

  • A species with helpers during hardship
  • Nest in trees; damage tree so much that it drips with sap to prevent snake predators

41

Acorn Woodpeckers

  • Another species with helpers
  • Acorn cache defended by offspring (save up acorns all year) during hard times

42

Wood mouse has _____ in sperm.

Kin selection

All sperm link together in a train; more successful

Hooks and linkage mechanisms

43

"I'll scratch your back, if you scratch mine."

Cooperation

44

The 2nd most common behavior in nature behind selfishness is _____

Cooperation

45

Dr. Krupa's real life example of reciprocal altruism:

I give my neighbor some of my tomatoes in August

She gives me most of her figs in the Spring

 

(This would only be cooperation IF they traded immediately - it happens at one time)

46

What's the difference between reciprocal altruism and cooperation?

Reciprocal altruism 

Today: You (-), Other (+)

Future day: You (+), Other (-)

Sum: You (+), Other (+)

Cooperation

Happens at once

You (+), Other (+)

47

3 Conditions of Eusociality

  1. Overlap in generations
  2. Cooperative brood care
    1. Specialized castes of non-reproductive individuals

48

Kin selection =

Indirect fitness

49

4 Conditions for Reciprocal Altruism

  1. Each individual repeatedly interacts with the same set of individuals in a group
  2. Many opportunities for "altruism" occur in an individual's lifetime
  3. Individuals have good memories (typically very intelligent)
  4. Potential exists for altruistic interactions in symmetrical situation

50

Females more related to _____ than to _____

Their sisters than to their offspring

51

Females develop from _____ eggs.

Males develop from _____ eggs.

 

Females - fertilized

Males - unfertilized

52

Males are _____ 

Reproductive females are _____

Males = haploid (1n)

Reproductive females = diploid (2n)

53

Better for a worker to tend to mother to produce many sisters ( r = ___) than to produce many offspring ( r = ___)

Sister - r = 3/4

Offspring - r = 1/2

54