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Flashcards in Exam III Studies Deck (13):
1

Herrnstein's Concurrent Schedules Experiment

Pigeon with VI 2 min and VI 6 min schedules -- pecked at the 2 min more often, but sometiems at the 6 min. Pecked corresponding to ratio of reinforcement.

2

Crespi [1942]

Shifts in reward magnitude

Contrast effects [elation vs depression]

Vary # pellets in group 1, give same # of pellets in group 2

S-R theory postulates that they will all converge on same response, but they do not.

1 -> 16 and 4 -> 16 = overrun
256 -> 16 and 64 -> 16 = drop below baseline level

3

Colwill & Rescorla [1988]

Trained rats to nosepoke by using a pellet reward during
one stimulus and a sucrose reward during another stimulus.

They then separately trained two target responses,
leverpressing and chainpulling, by using a pellet reward
for one and a sucrose reward for the other.

In test, they found that the stimuli trained with nosepoke
augmented leverpressing and chainpulling to the
degree that the stimulus and response shared an outcome.

This finding suggests that both the stimulus (S) and the
response (R) become associated with the rewarding outcome.

OUTCOME MEDIATED TRANSFER

4

Colwill & Rescorla [1985]

Outcome devaluation

Training -- R1-O1, R2-O2
Devaluation -- O1+, O2- [+ denotes pairing with illness]
Test -- R1 vs R2

An aversion to R1 has been created

S-R theory would've predicted there would be no difference between the responses

5

Colwill & Rescorla [1990]

Examining role of S, a discriminatory stimuli, in an R-O [response-outcome] association.

Rats recieve different pairs of S with R-O, all evidence pointing to hierarchal role of S in controlling an R-O association.

LEARNING INVOLVES A 3-TERM CONTINGENCY

SWITCHING DESIGN

6

Mitchell & Stoffelmayr [1973]

Using premack principle with schizophrenics in order to condition them to work on simple tasks

7

Mellstrom & Johanneson [2008]

Sweedish study on blood donation, showing women donate more with no compensation and men donate more with compensation

If donated to charity, men donate more than no compensation but less than if they get the money. Women donate the most if they get to donate, sligthly less if they get no comp, and least if they get money.

OVERJUSTIFICATION

8

Rescorla, Grau, Durlach [1985]

Using pigeons

A+, B+, AB-
C+, AC+
Then, X-A, Y-B or X-C, Y-A

Test X and Y, and compound XY

If compound is reinforced, responding to compound > responding to elements

If compound not reinforced, responding to elements > responding to elements

9

Mellstrom & Johanneson [2008]

Sweedish study on blood donation, showing women donate more with no compensation and men donate more with compensation

If donated to charity, men donate more than no compensation but less than if they get the money. Women donate the most if they get to donate, sligthly less if they get no comp, and least if they get money.

OVERJUSTIFICATION

10

Bouton [1984]

REINSTATEMENT

Compared:
CS shock -> shock same/diff
vs
CS shock-> extinction -> shock same/diff

No diff between groups that did and did not receive extinction

REINSTATEMENT NOT DUE TO SUMMATION

11

Neuringer, Kornell, Olufs [2001]

Showed increasing variability with decreasing responding

IE: variability increases as action extinguish

12

Rescorla [1972]

NEGATIVE PATTERNING

Tone - food [A+]
Clicker - food [B+]
Tone+clicker - no food [AB-]

AB- is now an ABX [conditioned inhibitor]

13

Klossek et al [2008]

Kids may click different pictures to see certain cartoons, satiated certain cartoons and didn't satiate others

Younger kids had trouble with goal-oriented learning, older kids didn't