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Flashcards in C11 Deck (26):


The initial stage of information processing in which something is learned for the first time.



Interpretation of complex behavior in nonhuman animals based on the assumption that these animals have the same thoughts, emotions, and intentions as people might have under similar circumstances. Anthropomorphic explanations hamper understanding because they overemphasize conscious human experience and are often accepted without experimental proof.


Cognitive Ethology

A branch of ethology that assumes that consciousness, awareness, and intentionality can be inferred from the complexity, flexibility, and cleverness of certain forms of behavior.


Comparative Cognition

Theoretical constructs and models used to explain aspects of behavior in various animal species that cannot be readily characterized in terms of simple S–R mechanisms. These mechanisms do not presume the existence of consciousness, awareness, or intentionality.


Consolidation Window

A limited period after the activation of a memory during which the memory is subject to modification by new information or neural or pharmacological interventions.


Delayed-matching-to-sample Procedure

A procedure in which participants are reinforced for selecting a test stimulus that is the same as a sample stimulus that was presented at the start of the trial some time earlier.


Directed forgetting

Forgetting that occurs because of a stimulus (a forget cue) that indicates that working memory will not be tested on that trial. Directed forgetting is of interest because it is an example of the stimulus control of memory.


Episodic Memory

Memory for a specific event or episode that includes information about what occurred and when and where the event took place, as contrasted with memory for general facts or ways of doing things.



Failure to remember previously acquired information because the information is no longer stored in the nervous system.


Memory Consolidation

The establishment of a memory in a relatively permanent form or the transfer of information from an active or short-term state to an inactive or long-term state.


Memory Failure

The inability to accurately recall something from memory. Memory failure can occur because the information was never acquired in the first place (acquisition deficit), because it was lost during the retention interval (retention deficit or forgetting), or because it cannot be retrieved (retrieval deficit).


Proactive Interference

Disruption of memory caused by exposure to stimuli before the event to be remembered.


Procedural Memory

Memory for learned behavioral and cognitive skills that are performed automatically, without the requirement of conscious control, often reflecting knowledge about invariant relationships in the environment, such as CS–US contiguity (classical conditioning) or response–reinforcer contiguity (instrumental conditioning).


Prospective Coding

Memory code for an expected future event or response.



The process of stabilizing or consolidating a reactivated memory. The disruption of this reconsolidation can lead to the modification or loss of the original memory.


Reference Memory

Long-term retention of background information necessary for successful use of incoming and recently acquired information. (Compare with working memory.)



Maintaining information in an active state, available to influence behavior or influence the processing of other information.


Retention Interval

The time between acquisition of information and a test of memory for that information.



The recovery of information from a memory store.


Retroactive Interference

Disruption of memory caused by exposure to stimuli following the event to be remembered.


Retrograde Amnesia

A gradient of memory loss going back in time from the occurrence of brain injury or disturbance of the nervous system. Amnesia is greatest for events that took place closest to the time of injury and less for events experienced earlier.



Same as retrospective coding


Retrospective Coding

Memory code for a previously experienced event or response. Also called retrospection.


Stimulus Coding

How a stimulus is represented in memory.


Trials-Unique Procedure

A matching-to-sample procedure in which different sample and comparison stimuli are used on each trial.


Working memory

Temporary retention of information that is needed for successful responding on the task at hand but not on subsequent (or previous) similar tasks.