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Flashcards in C8 Deck (20):
1

Intradimensional discrimination

A discrimination between stimuli that differ only in terms of the value of one stimulus feature, such as color, brightness, or pitch.

2

Modulator

A stimulus that signals the relation between two other events.

A modulator may signal that a CS will be followed by a US or that an instrumental response will be reinforced.

The modulator is part of a conditional relation in which the status of a binary relation depends on the status of the modulator.

3

Multiple Schedule of Reinforcement

A procedure in which different reinforcement schedules are in effect in the presence of different stimuli presented in succession.

Generally, each stimulus comes to evoke a pattern of responding that corresponds to whatever reinforcement schedule is in effect during that stimulus.

4

Negative Patterning

A discrimination procedure in which reinforcement is provided when each of two stimuli appear by themselves (A+ and B+) but not when the two stimuli appear simultaneously (AB–).

5

Overshadowing

Interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition.

6

Peak-shift Effect

A displacement of the highest rate of responding in a stimulus generalization gradient away from the S+ in a direction opposite the S–.

7

Positive Patterning

A discrimination procedure in which reinforcement is provided when two stimuli (A and B) are presented simultaneously (AB+) but not when those stimuli appear by themselves (A–and B–).

8

Stimulus Discrimination

Differential responding in the presence of two or more stimuli.

9

Stimulus Discrimination Training

Training with a stimulus discrimination procedure that results in stimulus discrimination.

10

Stimulus Discrimination Procedure [Classical]

A classical conditioning procedure in which one stimulus (the CS+) is paired with the US on some trials and another stimulus (the CS–) is presented without the US on other trials.

As a result of this procedure, the CS+ comes to elicit a conditioned response and the CS–comes to inhibit this response.

11

Stimulus Discrimination Procedure [Instrumental]

A procedure in which reinforcement for responding is available whenever one stimulus (the S+, or S D ) is present and not available whenever another stimulus (the S–, or S Δ ) is present.

12

Stimulus Element Approach

An approach to the analysis of control by compound stimuli which assumes that participants respond to a compound stimulus in terms of the stimulus elements that make up the compound. (Compare with the configural-cue approach.)

13

Stimulus Equivalence

Responding to physically distinct stimuli as if they were the same because of common prior experiences with the stimuli.

14

Stimulus Generalization

Responding to test stimuli that are different from the cues that were present during training.

15

Stimulus Generalization Gradient

A gradient of responding that is observed if participants are tested with stimuli that increasingly differ from the stimulus that was present during training. (See also excitatory generalization gradient.)

16

Conditional Relation

A relation in which the significance of one stimulus or event depends on the status of another stimulus.

17

Configural Cue Approach

An approach to the analysis of stimulus control which assumes that organisms respond to a compound stimulus as an integral whole rather than a collection of separate and independent stimulus elements. (Compare with the stimulus-element approach.)

18

Discriminative Stimulus

A stimulus that controls the performance of instrumental behavior because it signals the availability (or nonavailability) of reinforcement.

19

Excitatory Generalization Gradient

A gradient of responding that is observed when organisms are tested with the S+ from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+.

Typically the highest level of responding occurs to the S+; progressively less responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. Thus, the gradient has an inverted-U shape.

20

Facilitation

A procedure in which one cue designates when another cue will be reinforced. Also called occasion setting.